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爆發原因|誰負一戰責任

資料C

以下漫畫出版於1914年英國出版。


資料D

下文取材自一本歷史書。

德國支持奧地利以對抗塞爾維亞人,並不是說德國對塞爾維亞人(或所有巴爾幹國家)有興趣,只是哈布斯王朝*是德國在對抗協約國時,唯一可以幫助德國的盟國。根據1839年條約規定,比利時是個永久中立國家,假道實為不便。但對1914年時的德軍來說,這項條約是老廢紙一張,因而不礙事。可是,因德國侵犯了比利時的中立,英國政府便有了堅強的理由參戰。

* 即奧匈帝國的皇室家族


(a) 漫畫家對當時歐洲的局勢持什麼看法?試參考資料C,支持你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 推斷該漫畫的目的。試參考資料C,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(c) 第一次世界大戰前列強維持和平方法取得多大成效?試參考資料D,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(d) 哪一方 ── 英國還是德國 ── 應對第一次世界大戰爆發負上較大責任?試參考資料C及D,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

SOURCE C

The following cartoon was published in Britain in 1914.


SOURCE D

The following paragraph is extracted from a text book.

Germany supported Austria-Hungary against Serbian, this did not mean that Germany was interested in Serbian (or all other Balkan nations), but the House of Habsburg* was the only ally of Germany against members of the Triple Entente. According to the treaty in 1829, Belgium should remain permanently a neutral state, which caused inconvenience to Germany. But to the German army in 1914, this treaty was nothing other than an old trash, it did not cause any hindrance. However, because Germany destroyed the neutrality of Belgium, the British government had a tenable reason to join the war.

*the House of Habsburg:royal family in Austria-Hungary


(a) What was the view of the cartoonist towards the situation in Europe at the time? Explain your answer with reference to source C.

(3 marks)


(b) Identify the purpose of the cartoon. Explain your answer with reference to source C.

(4 marks)


(c) How effective was the effort made by European powers in upholding peace before WWI? Explain your answer with reference to source D.

(4 marks)


(d) Which side, Britain or Germany, should hold greater responsibility for the outbreak of WWI? Explain your answer with reference to source C and D, and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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