成就局限丨西方欖球聯盟

資料A

以下資料取自1948年3月刊於一份美國報章的漫畫,時為冷戰序幕。漫畫中的左方是資本主義集團,張開兩臂的男子代表哈里・杜魯門,時任美國總統;右方是共產主義集團,張開兩臀的男子代表史太林,時任蘇聯共產黨中央委員會總書記。中間的欖球顯示歐洲地圖,塗上顏色部分為東歐衛星國,為冷戰期間受蘇聯操控的共產主義國家。

西方欖球聯盟


資料B

以下取材自美國政府向國會提交有關歐洲戰後經濟發展的報告。

歐洲內部貿易指數在1951年第二季度為1361938 = 100),第一季度為1391950年最後三個月的峰值為143。雖然錄得跌幅,但1951年上半年歐洲貿易量比1950年上半年多五分之一。儘管歐洲內部貿易的增長受到許多因素影響,例如工業生產提升和西德恢復其傳統貿易地位,但截至1951630日年度貿易額得以增長25%,是有賴於歐洲經濟合作組織和歐洲支付聯盟的貿易自由化計劃。


(a) 從資料A推斷第二次世界大戰後歐洲經濟統合的兩項特徵。試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(b) 資料B是旨在支持還是反對歐洲進行經濟協作?參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(c) 直至1965年,歐洲經濟統合多大成效?試參考資料A及B,並就你對戰後直至1965年歐洲經濟協作歷史所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)

 

Source A

The following cartoon was published in March 1948, which was the prologue of Cold War. In the cartoon, the capitalist camp was on the left, Harry Truman—the man who opened his arms —was the US President at that time; communist camp was on the right, Stalin—the man who opened his arms—was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union at that time. The rugby in the centre shows the map of Europe, the coloured part is satellites of Eastern Europe, which are the communist countries that controlled by USSR.

Source B

The following extract is adapted from report of the US government to the Congress about the post-war economic development in Europe.

The index of volume of intra-European trade was 136 (1938=100) in the second quarter, as compared with 139 in the first quarter and a peak of 143 in the last three months of 1950. Despite this decline, the volume of intra-European trade for the first half of 1951 was one-fifth larger than in the first half of 1950. While many factors, such as the growth of industrial production and the restoration of Western Germany to its traditional trading position, have influenced the growth of intra-European commerce, the outstanding contributions to the 25-percent rise in the volume of trade for the year ended June 30, 1951 were made by the trade liberalization program of the OEEC and the European Payments Union.

(a) Infer from Source A two characteristics of European economic integration after the Second World War. Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(4 marks)


(b) Is Source B meant to support or oppose Europe to have economic integration? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(3 marks)


(c) How effective was the European economic integration until 1965? Explain your answer with reference to Source A and B and using your own knowledge concerning European economic integration in the period of post war till 1965.

(8 marks)