集體安全體系丨瘋狗(LN)

資料A

以下漫畫出版於1930年的英國。

瘋狗季節

*THE DOGS OF WAR: 戰爭的狗


資料B

以下文章取材自本一本歷史書。

意大利軍隊在1935103日沒有宣戰的情況下入侵阿比西尼亞。國際聯盟立即採取行動……譴責意大利是侵略者,聯盟大會於1011日通過決議,對意大利實施經濟制裁。然而,這種制裁是沒有用的,因為煤和石油不包括在製裁之中,一些國家也沒有實施這些制裁……193512月,英法兩國就和平解決阿比西尼亞問題達成了協議。他們的方法是讓阿比西尼亞將六萬平方英里的領土交給意大利,以換取在阿比西尼亞和厄立特里亞港之間形成走廊的土地……關於協議,意大利,阿比西尼亞和國際聯盟沒有正式通知,當協議的內容暴露出來時,英國和法國的民意嘩然…… 19365月,意大利軍隊佔領了阿比西尼亞的首都,並宣布阿比西尼亞,厄立特里亞和索馬里蘭的聯盟為「意大利東非」。 7月份,聯盟最終取消了對意大利的經濟制裁。

(a) 作為維和機構而言,漫畫家對國際聯盟持什麼看法?參考資料A並解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 你在題(a) 所指的看法是否存在偏見?參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(5分)


(c) 「1930年代起,國際聯盟的影響力日漸消失。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(7分)

 

SOURCE A

The following British cartoon was published in 1930.

The Mad Dog Season


SOURCE B

The following passage is adapted from a history book.

Italian troops invaded Abyssinia without having a declaration of war on 3 October 1935. The League of Nations took actions immediately … denounced Italy as an aggressor and the League Assembly passed a resolution of imposing economic sanctions on Italy on 11 October. However, such sanctions were useless because coal and oil were not included in the sanctions and also some countries implemented them ineffectively … In December 1935, Britain and France made an agreement in order to solve the Abyssinia problem peacefully. Their method was to have Abyssinia … cede sixty thousand square miles of territory to Italy in return for the land which forms a corridor between Abyssinia and the port of Eritrea … Regarding the agreement, Italy, Abyssinia and the League of Nations were not formally informed, and when the contents of the agreement were exposed, the public opinion among Britain and France was in an uproar… In May 1936, Italian troops captured the capital of Abyssinia and declared the union of Abyssinia, Eritrea and Somaliland into ‘Italian East Africa’. In July, the League removed the economic sanctions on Italy at last.

(a) What is the cartoonists’ view on the League of Nations as a peace keeping institution? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Was the view you mentioned in (a) biased? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(5 marks)


(c) “The influence of the League of Nations gradually diminished in the 1930s.” Do you agree? Justify your view with Sources A, B and your own knowledge.

(7 marks)




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