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針對國聯的功能與意義,英法兩國存有根本性分歧 - 法國人想把國聯打造成防範德國復興的集體保障體系;英國人則希望將它看成包含德國在內的調解體系。這種期望源自於她們對一戰的看法 - 法國人認為戰爭是德國帝國主義的擴張;英國人則越來越認為它是由錯誤而成的。

最終,國際聯盟在一堆爭吵聲中出場,她的出現扭轉了近百年來的外交傳統。儘管沒有實質力量,但面對重大危機時,國聯仍可要求大國進行經濟制裁,甚或提供軍隊維持和平。然而,大國未必願意這麼做 - 經濟制裁會損失利益,軍事行動帶來沉重負擔,多國對此嗤之以鼻。難怪,侵略者視國聯如形同虛設的花瓶機構。




*League of nations: 國際聯盟

*idealism: 理想主義




(a) 推斷國際聯盟的一項的性質。試以資料D的一項線索,支持你的答案。


(b) 你認為資料E的主要信息是甚麼?試參考資料E,解釋你的答案。


(c) 指出「和平十四點」維持和平的兩種形式。就每一形式,從資料F引用一項線索作為例證。


(d) 「巴黎和約(1919-1923)未能維持和平。」你是否同意?試參考資料D、E及F,並就你對兩次大戰期間發展的認知,解釋你的答案。



Source D

The paragraphs are extracted from a history book about the two world wars.

Britain and France shared diverse views regarding the fundamental functions and significance of the League of Nations (LN) - the French wanted to create a system of collective security which aimed to prevent the revival of Germany; the British considered it as a mediation system with the participation of Germans. Their perceptions were originated from that of WWI - the expansion of German imperialism presumed by French people versus a series of mistakes supposed by Briton. 

Eventually emerged amidst overwhelming criticism, the LN overturned the longstanding diplomatic traditions. Despite the lack of substantial power, it could still urge strong powers to impose economic sanctions in the time of crises or send military army to maintain peace. However, they were reluctant to follow as these measures may harm their interests and bring heavy burden… No wonder aggressors viewed it as a symbolic existence. 

Source E

The British cartoon was published in 1919.


Source F

The following is an abstract from the ‘Fourteen Points’ proposed by US President Wilson.

I: No private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view
IV: National armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic 
VII: Belgium must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations
IX: A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality
X: The people of Austria-Hungary should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development
XIV: A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.

(a) Infer one nature of the League of Nations. Support your answer with one clue from Source D.

(2 marks)

(b) What is the main message from Source E? Explain your answer based on the source.

(3 marks)

(c) State two forms of peace-keeping proposed in the ‘Fourteen Points’. Cite one clue from Source F for each to support your answer.

(4 marks)

(d) “The Paris Peace Settlement (1919-1923) failed to maintain peace.” Do you agree? Justify your view with Sources D, E, F and your own knowledge regarding the inter-war period.

(6 marks)

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