top of page

維持和平|海牙會議

資料A

以下內容取材自一本歷史著作。

日俄戰爭對歐洲均勢造成相當的影響。戰爭之初英、法兩國關係變得淡薄,危及新成立的英法諒解,同時亦使英國極端反俄。但是隨著俄國的失敗,和俄德同盟計劃的瓦解,英國漸減輕對俄的恐懼。而開始與俄國達成協議。1907年,英、俄兩國終因在中亞的勢力範圍獲得協議而達成諒解。於是三國協約乃告成立。


德國認為此種外交形勢對其「敵對的包圍」。……1905-1914年間,德國外交用種種方法企圖打破三國協約,支持奧匈、爭取土耳其帝國的同盟,增加德國的世界地位。德國的努力並未能拆散三國協約,不過卻在兩大陣營之間,造成了許多威脅世界和平的危機。這些危機交互地來自帝國主義競爭最激烈的地區,特別是來自摩洛哥和近東。


資料B

以下資料取材自1907年的英國漫畫。

簡易題

(a) 日俄戰爭在哪方面是歐洲均勢的轉捩點?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3分)

(b) 漫畫家對第二次海軍裁軍會議的結果持什麼看法?參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(c) 「1900-1914年間是歐洲列強關係穩定的年代。」試參考資料A和B,並就你所知,評論此說能否成立。

(7分)


挑戰題

(a) 根據資料A,日俄戰爭為歐洲帶來什麼影響?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3 分)


(b) 資料A的作者為什麼認為三國協約對德國是「敵對的包圍」?試就你對1900-1914年間歐洲歷史發展所知,解釋你的答案。

(2+2分)


(c) 資料B的作者對海牙會議持什麼態度?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4 分)


(d) 「1900-1914年間,列強顯示了維持國際和平的能力。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

SOURCE A

The following extract is taken from a history book.

The Russo-Japanese War had considerable impact on the European balance of power. The beginning of the war led to the weakening of Anglo-French relations, which jeopardized the newly established Anglo-French Entente, and British extreme anti-Russian sentiments. With the defeat of Russia and collapse of the Russian-German alliance, however, Britain gradually lessened its fear of Russia and started reaching agreement with it. In 1907, they eventually established an entente after making an agreement on their sphere of influence in Central Asia. This led to the establishment of the Triple Entente.


Germany regarded such diplomatic situation as ‘hostile encirclement’ of it … From 1905 through 1914, Germany tried different diplomatic methods to break the Triple Entente – by supporting Austria-Hungary, seeking alliance with the Turkish Empire and raising its international status. Germany’s efforts did not cause the breakup of the Triple Entente, but they created many peace-threatening crises between the two blocs. These crises occurred by turns in areas where imperialist competitions were the fiercest, especially in Moroccan and Near East.


SOURCE B

Below is a British cartoon published in 1907.

Basic Question

(a) In what ways was the Russo-Japanese War the turning point of the European balance of power? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) What was the cartoonist’s view towards the Second Hague Disarmament Conference? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)


(c) ‘The period 1900-1914 was an era of stable relations among the European powers.” Comment on the validity of this statement with reference to the Sources, and using your own knowledge.

(7 marks)

Challenge Question

(a) According to source A, what was the impact of Russo-Japanese War on Europe? Support your answer with reference to source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Why did author of Source A think that Germany was under “hostile encirclement” by the Triple Entente? Explain your answer with reference to the European historical developments during 1900-1914.

(2+2 marks)


(c) What is the attitude of the cartoonist of source B towards the Hague Convention? Explain your answer with reference to source B.

(4 marks)


(d) “The powers demonstrated an ability to maintain peace in the period 1900-1914.” Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



45 次查看0 則留言

Comments


bottom of page