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維和努力|降神會

資料A

以下取材自一幅標題為「降神會」及1906年出版的漫畫,當時阿爾赫西斯會議還在進行。

阿爾赫西斯降神會*

集結的國家:「好吧,似乎什麼都沒有發生。」


*降生會指人們試圖與死者接觸的儀式


資料B

以下取材自一本關於第二次海牙會議的歷史書。

有足夠的說法表明,這個歷時四個月的會議受到了世界各地的批評,並在期刊上受到歪曲, 不僅證明了它的使命,而且是國際發展的里程碑。


只要戰爭存在,我們就必須盡可能地使戰爭人性化。更大的任務是消除戰爭的根源,使國家 不至於匆忙開戰,或因未能解決或調整衝突而產生的摩擦,可不允許那些必然但緩慢地加入 戰爭的國家陷入戰爭。


撇開小事,這次會議做了四件事。


1. 它規定在類似時期,即八年內,第三次會議的會議一般由各國控制,而不是由任何一個 國家控制。

2. 它通過了非強制追討合同債務、替代仲裁和訴諸武力理由和訴諸武力的公約。

3. 它設立獎金法庭以保護中立者。

4. 它奠定了一個偉大的仲裁法庭的基礎。


(a) 你認爲資料A漫畫的主要訊息是什麽?參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 資料的作者是否認同國際社會對第二次海牙會議的看法?參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(c) 就反映第一次世界大戰前歐洲國家維持和平的方法而言,資料A及B有多大用處?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

SOURCE A

The following is adapted from a cartoon entitled “Seance*” and was published in 1906 when the Algeciras Conference was still ongoing.

The Algeciras Seance*

The Assembled Powers: “Well, nothing seems to be happening.”


Seance means a ceremony at which people attempt to make contact with the dead


SOURCE B

The following is adapted from a historical book about the Second Hague Conference.

Enough has been said to show that this conference, which lasted four months, and which was subjected to criticism in all parts of the world and to misrepresentations in the journals, has not only justified its calling but that it is a landmark in international development.


Our great concern must be, as far as possible, to humanize war as long as war exists. The greater task is to remove the causes of war so that nations may not be hurried into war, or that friction, developed by the failure to solve or adjust conflicts, may not permit nations slowly but surely to drift into war.


Leaving out minor matters, this conference did four things.


1. It provided for a meeting of a third conference within an analogous period, namely eight years, to be under the control of the powers generally, instead of the control of any one of them.

2. It adopted a convention for the non-forcible collection of contract debts, substituting arbitration and an appeal to reason for force and an appeal to arms.

3. It established a prize court to safeguard neutrals.

4. It laid the foundations of a great court of arbitration.


(a) What, in your opinion, is the main message of the cartoon shown in Source A? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Did the author agree with the international view towards the Second Hague Conference? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)


(c) How useful are Sources A and B in reflecting the ways of maintaining peace by the European powers before the First World War? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A, B and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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