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競爭原因|威廉(WW1)

資料E    

以下內容取材自1905年出版的英國雜誌。 

只有威廉會這樣

法蘭西夫人:「多麼傲慢的的人啊!」 

約翰·布爾先生:「哦,我想這就是他所說的『正確』」 

[「在外交政策上,德意志帝國與所有列強的關係都是正確的,並且與大多數列強關係良好且友好。」 德皇在德國國會大廈的演講——《泰晤士報》,11 月 29 日,星期三。]


資料F    

以下取材自德皇威廉二世的採訪和英國外交大臣愛德華格雷爵士回應德皇威廉二世的文章。 

德皇威廉二世於 1908 年 10 月 28 日接受《每日電訊報》採訪: 

德國是一個年輕且不斷發展的帝國。 德國擁有迅速擴張的世界性商業,愛國的德國人的合法野心拒絕給予任何限制。 德國必須擁有一支強大的艦隊來保護這種商業和她在最遙遠海域的多重利益。 她希望這些利益會繼續增長,而且她必須能夠在全球任何一個角落大力爭取這些利益。 她的視野很遠。 她必須為遠東的任何不測事件做好準備。 誰能預見它會在未來的日子裡在太平洋上演,不是有些人認為的那麼遙遠,而是無論如何,所有擁有遠東利益的歐洲大國都應該為之做好準備的日子?    


看看日本的成功崛起; 想想中國可能的民族覺醒; 然後判斷太平洋的巨大問題。 在解決太平洋的未來時,只有那些擁有強大海軍的大國才會得到尊重; 如果僅出於這個原因,德國必須擁有強大的艦隊。 當他們在未來的大辯論中站在同一邊說話時,英國自己甚至可能會為德國擁有一支艦隊而感到高興。    


愛德華·格雷爵士在 1908 年 11 月對德皇威廉的回應: 

德國皇帝讓我老去; 他就像一艘戰艦,汽船升騰,螺旋槳前進,但沒有舵,總有一天會遇到什麼,造成災難。她擁有世界上最強大的軍隊,而德國人不喜歡被人嘲笑,正在尋找可以發洩怒火和使用實力的人。在一場大戰之後,一個國家在一代人或更長的時間內都不想要另一場戰爭。現在距離德國上一次戰爭已經38年了,她很堅強,很不安,就像一個靴子對他來說太小的人。我認為目前不會發生戰爭,但歐洲的和平很難再維持五年。 

(a) 資料E的漫畫如何挑起對德國的憤怒?參考資料E,解釋你的答案。

(3 分)


(b) 比較德皇威廉和愛德華·格雷爵士對德國的看法。參考資料F,解釋你的答案。    

(4 分)

(c) 「第一次世界大戰是由德國而非英國所導致的。」評論此說能否成立。試參考資料E及F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。                 

(8 分)


 

SOURCE E    

The following is adapted from a British magazine published in 1905.   

Only William's Way.

Madame La France. "What a very uppish person!"

Mr John Bull. "Oh, I suppose it's what he calls being 'correct.'"

["In foreign policy the relations of the German empire with all the Powers are correct, and with most Powers they are good and friendly." The Kaiser's Speech at the Reichstag - The Times, Wednesday, November 29.]


SOURCE F    

The following is adapted from an interview by Kaiser Wilhelm II and an article in response to Kaiser Wilhelm II by the British foreign secretary Sir Edward Grey.

Kaiser Wilhelm II’s interview to the Daily Telegraph on 28th October 1908: Germany is a young and growing empire. She had a world-wide commerce which is rapidly expanding and to which the legitimate ambition of patriotic Germans refuses to assign any bounds. Germany must have a powerful fleet to protect that commerce and her manifold interests in even the most distant seas. She expects those interests to go on growing, and she must be able to champion them manfully in any quarter of the globe. Her horizons stretch far away. She must be prepared for any eventualities in the Far East. Who can foresee that it may take place in the Pacific in the days to come, days not so distant as some believe, but days at any rate, for which all European powers with Far Eastern interests ought steadily to prepare?    


Look at the accomplished rise of Japan; think of the possible national awakening of China; and then judge the vast problems of the Pacific. Only those powers that have great navies will be listened to with respect when the future of the Pacific comes to be solved; and if for that reason only, Germany must have a powerful fleet. It may even be that England herself will be glad that Germany has a fleet when they speak together on the same side in the great debates of the future.    


Sir Edward Grey’s response to Kaiser Wilhelm in November, 1908:

The German Emperor is ageing me; he is like a battleship with steam up and screws going, but with no rudder, and he will run into something some day and cause a catastrophe. He has the strongest army in the world and the Germans don’t like being laughed at and are looking for somebody on whom to vent their temper and use their strength. After a big war a nation doesn’t want another for a generation or more. Now it is 38 years since Germany had her last war, and she is very strong and very restless, like a person whose boots are too small for him. I don’t think there will be war at present, but it will be difficult to keep the peace in Europe for another five years.

(a) How did the cartoon in Source E provoke Germany’s anger? Explain your answer with reference to Source E.                       

(3 marks)


(b) Compare the views of Kaiser Wilhelm and Sir Edward Grey about Germany. Explain your answer with reference to Source F.                     

(4 marks)


(c) ‘First world War was caused by Germany rather than Britain.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E, F and using your own knowledge.              

(8 marks)



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