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同盟制度|拔河 (WW1)

資料A

以下漫畫出版於1914年某個歐洲國家,標題為「歐洲的平衡」。

資料B

以下資料取材自一位學者對於第一次世界大戰爆發前的歐洲局勢的評論。

二十世紀初的歐洲局勢是對立、嚴峻的。無論是三國同盟或三國協約,其基礎均建立在恐懼與猜忌之上,條款所規定的是一旦爆發戰爭將如何互相支援而使戰爭擴大之事,並非著眼於如何協調的辦法來局部化或消弭戰爭,因而為害甚大。尤其至,其時秘密外交之風甚盛,不僅各國人民被蒙在鼓裡內,不得與聞外交政策,甚至有時內閣同僚亦不知其同僚已與他國締有秘密協定。……再加上十九世紀後半期的許多爭端均是用武力解決,於是各國競相唯力是視,維持龐大的軍備和進行激烈的軍備競賽。有的國家乃至有「戰爭崇拜」以榮化戰爭。

(a) 你認為該漫畫是出版於三國同盟還是三國協約的成員國?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 參考資料B,指出同盟制度的兩項特徵。

(2+2分)


(c) 「同盟制度是導致第一次世界大戰爆發的主因。」試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,評論此說能否成立。

(7分)


 

SOURCE A

The following cartoon was published by a European country in 1914, titled ‘the Balance in Europe’.

SOURCE B

The following is adapted from a scholar’s comments on the situation of Europe before the outbreak of World War I.

The condition in Europe was opposing and serious during the early 20th century. Both the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente were formed out of fear and suspicion. The terms stipulated mutual support for the extension of warfare in case of war, rather than cooperation to localize or eliminate it, and thus caused great damage. In particular, the trend of secret diplomacy was prevalent at that time. Not only did the whole populace know nothing about the diplomatic policies of their countries, but the cabinet members also had no idea about the secret agreements signed by their fellows with other countries. …… in addition, many conflicts in the second half of the 20th century ended with battles. The states thus emphasized force only. They stocked up loads of armaments and stated intensive arms race. Some of them even glorified wars through ‘worship of war’.

(a) Do you think the cartoon was published by the Triple Alliance or the Triple Entente? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Identify two characteristics of alliance system with reference to Source B.

(2+2 marks)


(c) ‘The alliance system was the main factor leading to the outbreak of World War I.’ Comment on the validity of the statement with reference to sources A and B and using your own knowledge.

(7 marks)



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