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列強關係|德奧調情(WW1)

資料A

下文有關第一次世界大戰期間的奧匈帝國。

奧匈帝國是四國同盟*中第二強的成員。它是德國連繫東方盟友土耳其和保加利亞的要塞。它亦是唯一一個原因令德國不致單獨面對協約國的夾攻。若沒有奧匈帝國,在協約國夾擊下,德國會更早被打垮。

*四國同盟是拿破崙戰敗後的1815年維也納會議的組成部份,成員國包括奧地利、英國、俄國、普魯士。


資料B

下文有關第一次世界大戰期間的奧匈帝國。

如果戰爭是如此不堪,那麼奧匈帝國為何不以簽署和約和少許領土換取在戰爭中全身而退的機會?奧匈帝國的官員其後聲稱,他們不退出戰爭的理由是協約國開出的條件難以接受,而且若奧匈帝國背棄同盟條約的承諾,帝國將會受到德國侵略的威脅。

資料C

以下是一幅於1915年出版的漫畫,題為「未經授權的調情」。

德皇(對奧國皇帝):「法蘭茲!法蘭茲!我既驚訝又痛苦。」


哪一方 ── 奧匈還是德國 ── 主導著這段關係?試參考資料A、B和C,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

SOURCE A

The following extract is about the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the First World War.


Austria-Hungary was the second strongest member of the Quadruple Alliance*, the vital land link to Germany’s oriental allies Turkey and Bulgaria, and the only reason why Germany did not face the combined might of the three Entente powers entirely alone, against which she would have succumbed much sooner.

*The Quadruple Alliance refers to the alliance formed between Austria, Britain, Russia and Prussia in the Congress of Vienna of 1815 after the defeat of Napoleon. It was the core part of the Congress.


SOURCE B

The following extract is about the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the First World War.

If the war was going so poorly, did Austria-Hungary not sign a separate peace, lose some territory, but survive the war essentially intact? Its officials later claimed not exiting the war was due to the unacceptable terms offered by the Entente or the threat of a German invasion if the Monarchy abandoned its treaty obligations.


SOURCE C

The following cartoon was published in 1915. It was entitled ‘An Unauthorised Flirtation’.

The Kaiser (to Austrian Emperor): “Franz! Franz! I’m surprised and pained.”


Which side - Austria Hungary or Germany - was dominating their relationship? Explain your answer with reference to Source A, B, C and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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