【2019】日本丨奧林匹克運動會

題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)



(a) 從資料C歸納一個可能妨礙日本發展的問題。試參考資料C,解釋你的答案。(3分

考生表現

表現令人滿意。題目要求考生從資料C歸納一個可能妨礙日本發展的問題。不少考生能夠按題旨作答。然而,表現稍遜的考生誤解資料,就日韓關係、第二次世界大戰帶來的混亂立論,而未能抓緊復興舊日本這個核心問題。


評分參考

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分]

問題:

例:

- 不少日本人仍然醉心於復興舊日本。

解釋:

例:

- 復興舊日本的心態只會讓人們活在過去,就像征韓論一事所反映出來那樣。日本需要向前看,而非回首過去一等大國的歷史。


參考答案

抱持舊日本心態是妨礙日本發展的問題。

作者鼓勵人們向前走。參考資料C,作家稱要「專注展望未來」恢復國力,就要「快點從『戰後』意識中脫離出來」,走出安舒區。他建議日本人勇於嘗試、尋求創新,避免因「戰敗的傷痕」而耽誤前程。可見,回味舊歷史的風光將會是阻礙日本發展的問題。


此外,作者借韓戰加以印證。參考資料C,作家稱「不要抱著舊日本的心態」,沉醉昔日美好而停滯不前。人們「帶著過去征韓論的語氣」認為日本戰無不勝荒誕至極,此等行為不思進取,該主張將成為日本發展的阻礙。因此,資料C強調日本人要擺脫舊思想、舊觀念。


最後,作者要人們告別舊思想。參考資料C,作者以「古舊的迷夢啊,永別了」收結,寄望日本人不要再沉迷於20世紀初的大國夢,收拾戰敗心情,從重出發走出陰霾。可見,守舊思想將會是妨礙日本發展的問題。


(b) 你認為資料C作者會否一如資料D所言,贊成日本主辦奧林匹克運動會?試參考資料C及D,解釋你的答案。(4分)

考生表現

表現平平。題目要求考生解釋資料C作答會否一如資料D所言贊成日本主辦奧林匹克運動會。不少考生能夠按題旨作答,惟表現遜者誤讀資料,作出「日本不需要什麼榮耀」、「小國不應主辦奧運會」等錯誤的推論。


評分參考

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]

立場:

答案應是肯定的。

解釋:

例:

- 資料C:日本不應追求古舊的光輝;日本應集中於建構高質素的生活。

- 資料D:奧林匹克運動會有助於改善未來日子的城市生活。


參考答案

我認為資料C 作者會一如資料D 所言,贊成日本主辦奧林匹克運動會。


首先,資料C 中提及到「我們不能僅抱著復興舊日本的心態」,反映出資料C 的作者認為日本應該要有改變和變得創新、新穎,而非只是着重復興舊日本。日本人應該要嘗試透過主持舉辦奧林匹克運動會,把日本變得更好和完美。


其次,資料C 中亦有提及到「然而,小國、三等國家的身分絕非壞事」和「北歐三國其實是出色的一等國家」,代表作者認為日本不用特意追求去成為一等國家或是一個大國,反而應該着重一點去追求更高的生活質素和標準。


而在資料D 裏說過「因此,奧運之後東京的吸引力和效率均會大大提高,市民將喜愛居於這個城市」,反映出奧運將會改善和提高日本人的生活質素。這與資料C 中提及的訊息是一樣的,兩篇資料同樣認同日本不應只注重如何再次變回一等國家,反而是要在未來不斷追求更高的生活質素。


同時,資料D 也有說過「人們普遍認為,奧運會已成為所有國際性活動中最大型的一項」,代表日本在世界上是一個出色的國家,因為它可以舉辦奧運會,這亦反映出其實日本人並不只是着重復興舊日本,而是想要一個更好的日本,這與資料C 作者的想法是吻合的。


(c) 在導致日本的經濟奇蹟上,內部因素有多重要?試參考資料C及D,並就你對1945-1980年間日本歷史發展所知,解釋你的答案。(8分)

考生表現

表現平平。題目要求考生解釋內部因素在導致日本的經濟奇蹟上有多重要。表現最佳的答案能夠運用兩項資料及個人所知,就導致戰後日本經濟奇蹟的因素作出有理有據的討論。表現稍遜的答卷僅討論內部因素,或未能清楚分辨國內和國外因素。


評分參考

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]

L2 欠缺均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多4分]

L3 答案合理且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多8分]

內部因素:

例:

-媒體要求改善生活質素。(資料C)

- 日本政府作出巨額投資,將日本的基礎設施現代化。(資料D)


其他因素:

例:

- 美國有利的政策。(個人所知)

- 冷戰時期國際環境對日本有利。(個人所知)


參考答案

題目所言確能成立。

第一,日本人積極態度導致經濟奇蹟。參考資料C,日本雜誌於1956年鼓勵國民向前看。例如指「要快點從『戰後』意識中脫離出來」和「不能僅抱著舊日本的心態」,停止吹噓過往成就,「專注展望未來」,痛定思痛,為前程籌謀。可見,日人樂觀心境使之發奮向上,天天打拼,使日本於戰後成為經濟強國。


第二,日本人謙遜態度導致經濟奇蹟。參考資料C,作家勸勉日人漠自視過高,「炫耀自己是一等國家、大國」,企圖復興大日本帝國思想。反之,「應該接受小國的新意義」,做個擁有「高質素生活」的三等國家亦非壞事。可見,日人實事求是,


第三,日本政府施政適當導致經濟奇蹟。就我所知,日本政府重新接管後提出「貿易立國」、「經濟掛帥」口號,以經濟為國家重心。例如提出經濟自立五年計劃(1955)預定年均增長為5%,和國民收入倍增計劃(1960)目標在1967年前人均部金增加一倍。該等法案因時制宜取得成效,促使日本成為經濟大國。


第四,日本政府培訓人材塑造有利營商環境。就我所知,日本政府重視教育發展。例如提出理科教育振興法(1953)促進中小學及高等學校開辦自然、算術和數學科科程,訓練學生觀察能力和鼓勵科學研究。結果,於1970年代時每7個日本人就有1個具專上學歷資格。日本人才輩出,為國家建設出一分力,有利經濟發展。



第五,日本政府投資了很多,致力把日本變得現代化。根據資料D,日本「把大筆款項已經投放於興建新旅館及其他建築」,而且「奧運之後東京的吸引力和效率均會大大提高,市民將喜愛居於這個城市」,反映出日本政府很希望把日本變得現代化和更吸引,最後漸潮漸地便可以製造更多商機,導致日本的經濟奇蹟。


雖然外來因素對日本經濟奇蹟一事也有重要性,但其影響力不及內部因素。

第一在國際形勢方面,冷戰格局刺激日本經濟發展。就我所知,二戰後蘇聯迅速崛起,為打造日本成為遠東抗共屏障,美國對其由懲罰改為扶助。例如制定道奇計劃(1949)提供近5億美元、確立匯率為1美元兌360日元。此等措施有助日本從戰敗急速恢復過來,成為經濟強國。


然而,國內因素比外在形勢更為重要性。基於國際環境是被動因素,意思是與日本經濟急速發展一事上無必然關係。有利條件亦需懂得充分利用方可取得成果,例如資料D內容關於日本舉辦奧運會,此亦要日本政府願意配合,撥款「約30億美元籌備開支」才成事。可見,因果關係而言,國內形勢較重要。


第二,美國因素刺激日本經濟發展。就我所知,二戰後盟總政府就非軍事化和民主代作出努力。例如召開遠東法庭(1946)處決6000個軍人和近20萬名右翼份子,又頒布《昭和憲法》(1947)確立議會制度。於情況下,政局穩定的日本能專注大搞經濟,使之戰後出現經濟奇蹟。


然而,日本政府比美國因素更為重要。儘管盟總政府有很多建樹,例如頒布經濟法規、確立教育制度、塑造穩定環境等。但就時間性而言,美國佔日只得7年(1945-1952),影響力有限。相反,盟軍撤出由日本政府掌舵(1952),而經濟發展黃金期(指國內生產總值平均約8%增幅)亦出現於自民黨之下,顯示國內因素較重要。


總括而言,戰後日本逐漸恢復過來,由三線小島國家搖身一變成一線經濟強國。導致這個結果因由眾多,包括盟總政府努力、冷戰形勢、日本政府施政得宜、日本人民族特質。經上述討論衡量後,內在因素發揮更大重要性。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) Conclude from Source C one problem that might have hindered Japan’s development. Explain your answer with reference to Source C. (3 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to conclude from Source C one problem that might have hindered Japan’s development. Many candidates answered the question as required. However, the weak candidates misinterpreted the Source, and focused on diplomatic relations between Japan and Korea, the chaos brought about by the Second World War, etc. instead of the mentality of restoring he old Japan.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1]

L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]

Problem:

e.g.

- Many Japanese still stuck to the mentality of reviving the old Japan.

Explanation:

e.g.

- The mentality of reviving the old Japan just kept the people looking backward, as on the issue of Seikanron. Japan needed to look ahead to the future, not looking back to its history of being a first-rate nation.



Suggested Answer

Holding the mentality of old Japan might have hindered Japan’s development.


The writer encouraged people to look ahead to future. From Source C, the writer believed the people should “release’ themselves “from the ‘post-war’ consciousness quickly” and “focus on looking ahead to the future” in order to revise the national power of Japan. The writer encouraged Japanese people to stay out of their comfort zone and seek for innovation, avoiding their developments being hampered by “the scar of defeat in war”. This showed holding the mentality of reviving old Japan might hindered Japan’s development.

Besides, the writer took Korean War as example to prove that holding the mentality of old Japan would hinder Japan’s development. From Source C, the writer stated that Japanese “cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan” or else stagnation of development would be resulted. The writer thought that people speaking with the tone of “Seikanron”, believing Japan was invincible, was unreasonable. Such a thought of resting on laurels would only hamper Japan’s development. Hence, Source C put emphasis on getting rid of old concepts among the Japanese.

Lastly, the writer asked the people to get rid of old thoughts. From Source C, the writer concluded the article by saying “Farewell, ancient illusory dreams”, reflecting the hope of seeing Japanese to look ahead to future rather than keep dreaming Japan to be the dominated world power. Hence, holding the mentality of old Japan might have hindered Japan’s development.

(b) Do you think that the author of Source C would have agreed to Japan’s hosting the Olympic Games, as mentioned in Source D? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D. (4 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to explain whether the author of Source C would have agreed to Japan’s hosting the Olympic Games, as mentioned in Source D. While many candidates managed to answer the question as required, weak candidates misread the Source and made ungrounded inferences such as ‘Japan did not need any reputation’, ‘small nations should not host an Olympic Games’, etc.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 2]

L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 4]

The answer is affirmative.

Explanation:

e.g.

- Source C: Japan should no longer seek to revive its old glory; it should focus on creating a high-quality standard of living.

- Source D: the Olympic Games helped improve urban life for years to come.



Suggested Answer

Yes, the author would have agreed.


From Source C, it said that ‘we cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan’, reflecting that the author of Source C believed that Japan should have a change and be innovated but not only focused on bringing the old Japan back. Instead, the Japanese should try to bring a new and better Japan to life through hosting the Olympic Games.


Also, source C mentioned that “there’s nothing bad about being a small country or third-rate country’ and ‘the three northern European countries are indeed outstanding first-rate nations’, implying that the author reckoned that Japan didn’t need to be a first-rate nation or a great power. Instead, it ought to pursue higher quality of life and standard of living.


Source D said that ‘citizens of Tokyo will enjoy living in a much more attractive and efficient city after the Games,’ reflecting that the Olympic Games is going to improve the quality and standard of living of Japanese. This idea is same as the that in source C, saying Japan ought to pursue better living and quality of life in the future, but not only focus on how to become a first-rate nation again.


Also, Source D said that the ‘Olympic Games have become and are generally recognized as the greatest of all international events,’ reflecting that Japan is becoming more outstanding in the world as it organized and hosted the Olympic Games, which shows the Japanese were not focusing on reviving the old Japan but trying to have a better Japan, which matches the thought of Source C’s author.

(c) How important was the Domestic factor in bringing about Japan’s economic miracle? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D and using your own knowledge concerning Japan’s historical development in the period 1945-1980. (8 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to explain how important the domestic factor was in bringing about Japan’ economic miracle in the period 1945-80. The best answers used the two sources and the candidate’s own knowledge to give relevant and substantiated discussions about factors that led to Japan’s economic miracle in the period. Weak answers discussed only the domestic factors, or failed to clearly differentiate between domestic and foreign factors.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]

L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]

L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]


Domestic factor:

e.g.

- Media urged for the improvement of quality of life. (Source C)

- The Japanese government made huge investment to modernise Japan’s infrastructure. (Source D)


Other factors:

e.g.

- Favourable policies of the USA. (own knowledge)

- Favourable international circumstances during the Cold War period. (own knowledge)



Suggested Answer

The domestic factor was very important in bringing about Japan’s economic miracle.

First, the proactive nature of Japanese created economic miracle. According to source C, it was mention that “We should release ourselves from the ‘post-war’ consciousness quickly” and “we cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan”, showing that the Japanese magazine encouraged people to look forward in 1956, as mentioned “focus on looking ahead to the future”. This shows that optimistic and hardworking attitude of Japanese made them become stronger and stronger economically, eventually created the economic miracle.


Second, modesty of Japanese brought about economic miracle. According to source C, it was mention that “the Japanese people often depict themselves as a third- or fourth-rate nation, probably with the intention of belittling themselves. However, there’s nothing bad about being a small country or third-rate country”. This shows that Japanese didn’t mind to be in a third-rate backward country, but remained practical and realistic.


Thirdly, the Japanese government created economic miracle. According to my own knowledge, the Japanese government made economy the main state development, such as that introducing the Five Year Plan Of Economic Independence in 1955 and the Income Doubling Plan in 1960, aiming a 5% increase in national economy and a double of citizens’ income. Under such circumstances, Japan economic development was stimulated and thus brought about economic miracle.


Fourthly, Japanese government trained talents that are beneficial to the economic development. According to my own knowledge, the Japanese government put great emphasis on education. For example, it passed the Science Education Promotion law in 1953, stimulating the development of primary school and other higher institutions, at the same time encouraging the education of math and science, aiming to train students’ observational skills. Consequently, 1 Japanese in every 7 Japanese had post-secondary qualification. With more and more talents, Japan economy could develop with innovation.



Fifthly, Japanese government made huge investment to modernise Japan. According to source D, it mentioned that ‘huge sums have been spent in the construction of new hotels and other private buildings.’ And ‘citizens will enjoy living in a much more attractive and efficient city after the Games’, implying that the Japanese government was eager to modernise and make the country more appealing and outstanding, eventually created more business opportunities and the economic miracle.


Although foreign factor has contributed to Japan economic miracle, it is not as important as domestic factor.

Firstly, regarding national image, cold war stimulated Japan economic development. According to my own knowledge, the US changed its punishment policy on Japan to a policy of recovery, in order to make Japan a reliable ally of the US to check the spread of communism. For example, the Dodge Plan in 1949, providing 500 million to Japan as well as linking the US dollar with Japanese yen. This shows that the cold war led to economic assistance from the US to Japan, which brought about economic miracle, turning Japan into an economic power.


However, domestic factor is more important than foreign factor. International circumstance is a passive factor that it doesn’t have a direct relation with the economic miracle in Japan. Without appropriate utilize, the favorable foreign factor wouldn’t benefit Japan. For example the foreign fact that Japan hosted Olympic game mentioned in source D, the Olympic game could only be successfully held with domestic support from the Japanese government, which was “The Governor of Tokyo has estimated that preparatory expenditure will probably exceed three billion US dollars.” As s consequence, in terms of casual relationship, domestic factor is more important.

Second, the US factor stimulated Japan economic development. According to my own knowledge, the SCAP government formed by the US in Japan after WW2 made contribution to demilitarization and democratization. For example, it held the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in 1946, executing 6000 militarists

. It also introduced the constitution in 1947, creating a parliamentary system. Under such circumstances, political stability allowed Japan to concentrate on economic development, paving way to economic miracle.


However, domestic factor of the Japanese government was more important than the US factor. Despite the policies implemented by the SCAP government, it only ruled Japan for 7 years (1945-1952), thus it had limited influence on Japan. It was until the Japan government rule Japan in 1952 and focused on economic development had economic miracle appeared. This shows that domestic factor was more important.


In conclusion, Japan recovered gradually and ended up becoming a strong economic power. Despite influence from the US and cold war, domestic factor of the Japanese government and characteristic of Japanese were more important in creating economic miracle.