L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]
我認為資料C 作者會一如資料D 所言，贊成日本主辦奧林匹克運動會。
首先，資料C 中提及到「我們不能僅抱著復興舊日本的心態」，反映出資料C 的作者認為日本應該要有改變和變得創新、新穎，而非只是着重復興舊日本。日本人應該要嘗試透過主持舉辦奧林匹克運動會，把日本變得更好和完美。
而在資料D 裏說過「因此，奧運之後東京的吸引力和效率均會大大提高，市民將喜愛居於這個城市」，反映出奧運將會改善和提高日本人的生活質素。這與資料C 中提及的訊息是一樣的，兩篇資料同樣認同日本不應只注重如何再次變回一等國家，反而是要在未來不斷追求更高的生活質素。
同時，資料D 也有說過「人們普遍認為，奧運會已成為所有國際性活動中最大型的一項」，代表日本在世界上是一個出色的國家，因為它可以舉辦奧運會，這亦反映出其實日本人並不只是着重復興舊日本，而是想要一個更好的日本，這與資料C 作者的想法是吻合的。
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]
L2 欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分]
L3 答案合理且均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多8分]
(a) Conclude from Source C one problem that might have hindered Japan’s development. Explain your answer with reference to Source C. (3 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to conclude from Source C one problem that might have hindered Japan’s development. Many candidates answered the question as required. However, the weak candidates misinterpreted the Source, and focused on diplomatic relations between Japan and Korea, the chaos brought about by the Second World War, etc. instead of the mentality of restoring he old Japan.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- Many Japanese still stuck to the mentality of reviving the old Japan.
- The mentality of reviving the old Japan just kept the people looking backward, as on the issue of Seikanron. Japan needed to look ahead to the future, not looking back to its history of being a first-rate nation.
Holding the mentality of old Japan might have hindered Japan’s development.
The writer encouraged people to look ahead to future. From Source C, the writer believed the people should “release’ themselves “from the ‘post-war’ consciousness quickly” and “focus on looking ahead to the future” in order to revise the national power of Japan. The writer encouraged Japanese people to stay out of their comfort zone and seek for innovation, avoiding their developments being hampered by “the scar of defeat in war”. This showed holding the mentality of reviving old Japan might hindered Japan’s development.
Besides, the writer took Korean War as example to prove that holding the mentality of old Japan would hinder Japan’s development. From Source C, the writer stated that Japanese “cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan” or else stagnation of development would be resulted. The writer thought that people speaking with the tone of “Seikanron”, believing Japan was invincible, was unreasonable. Such a thought of resting on laurels would only hamper Japan’s development. Hence, Source C put emphasis on getting rid of old concepts among the Japanese.
Lastly, the writer asked the people to get rid of old thoughts. From Source C, the writer concluded the article by saying “Farewell, ancient illusory dreams”, reflecting the hope of seeing Japanese to look ahead to future rather than keep dreaming Japan to be the dominated world power. Hence, holding the mentality of old Japan might have hindered Japan’s development.
(b) Do you think that the author of Source C would have agreed to Japan’s hosting the Olympic Games, as mentioned in Source D? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D. (4 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to explain whether the author of Source C would have agreed to Japan’s hosting the Olympic Games, as mentioned in Source D. While many candidates managed to answer the question as required, weak candidates misread the Source and made ungrounded inferences such as ‘Japan did not need any reputation’, ‘small nations should not host an Olympic Games’, etc.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 4]
The answer is affirmative.
- Source C: Japan should no longer seek to revive its old glory; it should focus on creating a high-quality standard of living.
- Source D: the Olympic Games helped improve urban life for years to come.
Yes, the author would have agreed.
From Source C, it said that ‘we cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan’, reflecting that the author of Source C believed that Japan should have a change and be innovated but not only focused on bringing the old Japan back. Instead, the Japanese should try to bring a new and better Japan to life through hosting the Olympic Games.
Also, source C mentioned that “there’s nothing bad about being a small country or third-rate country’ and ‘the three northern European countries are indeed outstanding first-rate nations’, implying that the author reckoned that Japan didn’t need to be a first-rate nation or a great power. Instead, it ought to pursue higher quality of life and standard of living.
Source D said that ‘citizens of Tokyo will enjoy living in a much more attractive and efficient city after the Games,’ reflecting that the Olympic Games is going to improve the quality and standard of living of Japanese. This idea is same as the that in source C, saying Japan ought to pursue better living and quality of life in the future, but not only focus on how to become a first-rate nation again.
Also, Source D said that the ‘Olympic Games have become and are generally recognized as the greatest of all international events,’ reflecting that Japan is becoming more outstanding in the world as it organized and hosted the Olympic Games, which shows the Japanese were not focusing on reviving the old Japan but trying to have a better Japan, which matches the thought of Source C’s author.
(c) How important was the Domestic factor in bringing about Japan’s economic miracle? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D and using your own knowledge concerning Japan’s historical development in the period 1945-1980. (8 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to explain how important the domestic factor was in bringing about Japan’ economic miracle in the period 1945-80. The best answers used the two sources and the candidate’s own knowledge to give relevant and substantiated discussions about factors that led to Japan’s economic miracle in the period. Weak answers discussed only the domestic factors, or failed to clearly differentiate between domestic and foreign factors.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]
L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]
L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]
- Media urged for the improvement of quality of life. (Source C)
- The Japanese government made huge investment to modernise Japan’s infrastructure. (Source D)
- Favourable policies of the USA. (own knowledge)
- Favourable international circumstances during the Cold War period. (own knowledge)
The domestic factor was very important in bringing about Japan’s economic miracle.
First, the proactive nature of Japanese created economic miracle. According to source C, it was mention that “We should release ourselves from the ‘post-war’ consciousness quickly” and “we cannot merely stick to the mentality of reviving the old Japan”, showing that the Japanese magazine encouraged people to look forward in 1956, as mentioned “focus on looking ahead to the future”. This shows that optimistic and hardworking attitude of Japanese made them become stronger and stronger economically, eventually created the economic miracle.
Second, modesty of Japanese brought about economic miracle. According to source C, it was mention that “the Japanese people often depict themselves as a third- or fourth-rate nation, probably with the intention of belittling themselves. However, there’s nothing bad about being a small country or third-rate country”. This shows that Japanese didn’t mind to be in a third-rate backward country, but remained practical and realistic.
Thirdly, the Japanese government created economic miracle. According to my own knowledge, the Japanese government made economy the main state development, such as that introducing the Five Year Plan Of Economic Independence in 1955 and the Income Doubling Plan in 1960, aiming a 5% increase in national economy and a double of citizens’ income. Under such circumstances, Japan economic development was stimulated and thus brought about economic miracle.
Fourthly, Japanese government trained talents that are beneficial to the economic development. According to my own knowledge, the Japanese government put great emphasis on education. For example, it passed the Science Education Promotion law in 1953, stimulating the development of primary school and other higher institutions, at the same time encouraging the education of math and science, aiming to train students’ observational skills. Consequently, 1 Japanese in every 7 Japanese had post-secondary qualification. With more and more talents, Japan economy could develop with innovation.
Fifthly, Japanese government made huge investment to modernise Japan. According to source D, it mentioned that ‘huge sums have been spent in the construction of new hotels and other private buildings.’ And ‘citizens will enjoy living in a much more attractive and efficient city after the Games’, implying that the Japanese government was eager to modernise and make the country more appealing and outstanding, eventually created more business opportunities and the economic miracle.
Although foreign factor has contributed to Japan economic miracle, it is not as important as domestic factor.
Firstly, regarding national image, cold war stimulated Japan economic development. According to my own knowledge, the US changed its punishment policy on Japan to a policy of recovery, in order to make Japan a reliable ally of the US to check the spread of communism. For example, the Dodge Plan in 1949, providing 500 million to Japan as well as linking the US dollar with Japanese yen. This shows that the cold war led to economic assistance from the US to Japan, which brought about economic miracle, turning Japan into an economic power.
However, domestic factor is more important than foreign factor. International circumstance is a passive factor that it doesn’t have a direct relation with the economic miracle in Japan. Without appropriate utilize, the favorable foreign factor wouldn’t benefit Japan. For example the foreign fact that Japan hosted Olympic game mentioned in source D, the Olympic game could only be successfully held with domestic support from the Japanese government, which was “The Governor of Tokyo has estimated that preparatory expenditure will probably exceed three billion US dollars.” As s consequence, in terms of casual relationship, domestic factor is more important.
Second, the US factor stimulated Japan economic development. According to my own knowledge, the SCAP government formed by the US in Japan after WW2 made contribution to demilitarization and democratization. For example, it held the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in 1946, executing 6000 militarists
. It also introduced the constitution in 1947, creating a parliamentary system. Under such circumstances, political stability allowed Japan to concentrate on economic development, paving way to economic miracle.
However, domestic factor of the Japanese government was more important than the US factor. Despite the policies implemented by the SCAP government, it only ruled Japan for 7 years (1945-1952), thus it had limited influence on Japan. It was until the Japan government rule Japan in 1952 and focused on economic development had economic miracle appeared. This shows that domestic factor was more important.
In conclusion, Japan recovered gradually and ended up becoming a strong economic power. Despite influence from the US and cold war, domestic factor of the Japanese government and characteristic of Japanese were more important in creating economic miracle.