L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多3分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]
L2 欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分]
L3 答案合理且均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多8分]
(a) What was the cartoonist’s view towards the USA? Explain your answer with reference to Source E. (3 marks)
Performance was good. This question required candidates to identify the cartoonist’s view towards the USA. Many candidates managed to identify the US’s double standard as reflected in the cartoon. The weak candidates misinterpreted the Source- some thought that the cartoonist supported the USA in fighting the USSR; others thought that the cartoon described the US military force as being weaker than the USSR.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- The USA was hypocritical.
- Kennedy blamed Khrushchev for putting missiles at the doorstep of the USA, but he himself did exactly the same- with even more missiles- at the Soviet doorstep.
The cartoonist thought the USA was selfish that only requested the USSR to disarm while refusing to disarm itself.
The USA requested the USSR to withdraw its troops. From Source E, the title of the cartoon, which was “Intolerable Having Your Rockets on MYDoorstep”, was told by Kennedy in requesting the USSR to disarm so as to safeguard the national security of the US. This showed the USA criticized USSR for establishing missile base near the US, threatening the US’s national security. Hence, it requested for disarmament of the USSR.
However, the USA armed in front of the USSR. From Source E, “Nikita Khrushchev” (the leader of the USSR) who stood at the right side in the cartoon represented the world of communism. Kennedy established “US bases in Turkey, Persia, etc, etc” in front of Khrushchev, reflecting US was well-armed. This showed the USA established missiles in front of its competitor while not allowing its competitor to do so. Therefore, the USA was a selfish country.
(b) How did the USA’s participation in foreign wars affect its budget? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (4 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to explain how the USA’s participation in foreign wars affected its budget. Many candidates managed to make use of the Source to explain how the two periods represented by the Korean War and Vietnam War affected the US budget. The answers copied indiscriminately from the Source without making any valid inference.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 4]
-1950-55: the mounting figures of national defence and growing deficit budget reflect the military expenditure involved in the USA’s participation in the Korean War.
-1959-70: the mounting figures of national defence and growing deficit budget reflect the military expenditure involved in the USA’s participation in the Vietnam War.
The USA’s participation in foreign wars increased its national defence expenditure. From Source F, during “1950-1952” the Korean War, the average national defence expenditure of the US increased from “11687.5” millions US dollars to “27793” millions US dollars, increasing its percentage in accounting for the total expenditure from “33.9” to “50.7”. This showed the USA spent immense capitals in participating in foreign wars that raised the national defence expenditure rapidly.
The USA’s participation in foreign wars led to deficit. From Source F, during “1968-1970” the Vietnam War, the average deficit of the USA increased from “5754.3” millions US dollars to “12314.3” millions US dollars, reflecting a double in growth. This showed expenditure in soldiers, armaments and transportation was large, leading to huge suffer in the US’s economy.
The USA’s participation in foreign wars increased its federal debt. From Source F, the gross federal debt of the US during “1947-1949” was “253930” millions US dollars. However, the USA intervened in foreign wars actively after the outbreak of Cold War, leading to a severe increase in its federal debt to “371791.7” millions US dollars during “1968-1970”. This showed an increase of 50% compared to before. Hence, participation in foreign wars increased the US’s federal debt.
(c) Why did détente take place between the USA and the USSR in the late 1960s and 1970s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)
Performance was satisfactory. This question required candidates to explain why détente took place between the USA and the USSR in the late 1960s and 1970s. Many candidates were able to write about the causes of détente. The answers listed examples that illustrated USA-USSR cooperation without relating these to causes of détente.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]
L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]
L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]
- Armament race and nuclear proliferation led to fear of war between the two superpowers. (Source E)
- Mounting military expenditure. (Source F)
- Continual involvement in overseas wars led to policy review.
- China broke with the USSR and sought a close relationship with the USA.
- Change of leadership (President Richard Nixon) facilitated new diplomatic policies.
Below are reasons for the occurence of détentebetween the US and USSR in the late 1960s and 1970s.
First, the fear of nuclear war led to détente. According to source E, Kennedy was suspicious towards the armaments of USSR. For instance, the caption of the comic ‘Intolerable Having Your Rockets on MYDoorstep’shows that he worried the national safety of the US. At the same time, Khrushchev was discontent with “the US base in Turkey and Persia”, showing that the USSR also worried about the threat from nuclear weapons. As a consequence, in fear of threatening and lethal armaments, the US and USSR improve their relation, bringing about détente.
Second, the improvement of relation between the US and USSR alleviated armament race. According to source E, two superpowers expanded their armaments actively. For example, there were 4 US rockets in front of the USSR, and 2 USSR rockets in front of the US. Under such circumstances, increase communication and cooperation can ease armament race and hence bring about détente.
Thirdly, economic burden lead to relaxation of US-USSR relation. According to source F, the US average national defence as percentage of expenditurebefore WW2 was 17%, yet since cold war had begun, the US average national defence expenditure increased from 11687.7 (33.9% of total expenditure) in 1947-1949 to 82038.3 (44.2% of total expenditure) in 1968-1970. More importantly, the average gross federal debt (in millions US dollars)reached 371791.7. Hence, the US and USSR made efforts to improve their relation in order to decrease expenditure on conflicting and so prevent economic downturn, bringing about détente.
Fourth, ease of tension between the US and USSR could stimulate economic development. According to source F, the US had 606 average surplus (in millions US dollars)(1956-1958) when the two superpowers held peaceful meetings. At the same time, the average national defence expenditure was 4000 million US dollars less than that in the period 1953-1955. This shows that economic incentive paved the way for détente.
Fifth, break off relation between China and USSR led to improved relation between the US and USSR. According to my own knowledge, Mao was discontent with Khrushchev, for example the armed conflicts in 1969. Under the lost of ally, USSR could only improve relation with the US, leading to détente.
Sixth, lesson learnt from the Vietnam War led to improvements of the US and USSR relation. According to my own knowledge, to check the spread of communism, the US army intervened in the civil war in Vietnam (1961-1975). However, the US lost and suffer from great losses, including 34 thousands soldiers, more than 4000 planes and 760 thousands ammunition. Such losses and heavy casualties forced the US to negotiate and improve relation with USSR, leading to détente.
Seventh, change of leadership led to détente. According to my own knowledge, Khrushchev, who was open-minded, became the leader of the USSR in 1950s. His initiation of Geneva conference in 1955 created the idea of peaceful coexistence between capitalism and communism, also, with his visit with Nixon in 1959, the US and USSR were less tense and paved the way for further negotiation and communication, finally leading to détente.
Eighth, in consideration of their own world leader position, the two superpowers improved their relation. According to my own knowledge, other countries apart from the US and USSR were also competing to become the leader of the world. For example, militarily, Britain (1952), France (1960) and China (1964) successfully invented atomic bomb; Economically, the ECC (1967) became the powerful and representative world economic body. To prevent being outcompete, the US and USSR signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1968, leading to détente.
Lastly, the Cuban missile crisis led to détente. According to my own knowledge, in response to US missile base in Turkey and Italy, USSR built a missile base in Cuba in 1962. As Cuba was only 90km away from the US, this directly threatened the national security of the US, leading to the naval blockade on Cuba by the US. The tension nearly convert the crisis into a nuclear war, in fear of such huge destruction, they set up telephone hotline in 1963 and signed the Nuclear test ban treaty in 1963, paved the way for détente.