L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多3分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效使月資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]
L2 答案缺乏均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分]
L3 答案有力且均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多8分]
(a) What, in your opinion, was the main message of the cartoon in Source G? Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (3 marks)
Performance was good. This question required candidates to identify the main message of the cartoon in Source G. Many candidates described the harsh demands on Germany by the victors of the Great War, as symbolized in the cartoon. The weak candidates misunderstood the cartoon as one that blamed Germany for making greedy demands to Britain and France, and so lost marks.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- The victors of the Great War made exorbitant demands on Germany.
-The goose (Germany) was too small to produce a golden egg the size required by France and Britain.
The main message of the cartoon in Source G was Germany could not fulfill the demands from Britain and France.
Germany could not meet the standard of golden egg set by Britain and France. From Source G, the chicken that represented Germany produced a golden egg of “German offer”, which failed to satisfy the demand of Britain and France that they took out a “model of golden egg desired”. In comparison, the golden egg produced by Germany was much smaller than the demand of Britain and France. This implied that Britain and France were dissatisfied against Germany as it could not meet their demands.
France would take action in confronting Germany. From Source G, the man represented France took an axe while criticizing the chicken who represented Germany harshly. This implied that France was discontented towards the golden egg of “German offer”. Thus, it took out arms to force Germany to produce “model of golden egg desired”. This showed the main message of the cartoon was Germany failed to meet the demands of Britain and France.
Lastly, the title of the cartoon was “The Unsatisfactory Golden Egg”, meaning Britain and France were dissatisfied towards the egg of “German offer”.
(b) What was the attitude of Clemenceau towards the French government regarding its execution of the Treaty of Versailles? Explain your answer with reference to the language and arguments used in Source H. (4 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to identify the attitude of Clemenceau towards the French government regarding its execution of the Treaty of Versailles, with reference to the language and arguments used in Source H. The best candidates made use of the Source to explain the attitude of Clemenceau. Some candidates cited clues to the explanation, but without focusing on the Source’s language and argument as required. The weak candidates misunderstood the Source as one that illustrated a positive attitude towards the implementation of the Treaty, or merely cited the Source without clearly explaining Clemenceau’s attitude.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using the Source. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer with good reference of the Source in making explanation. [max. 4]
- Language: ‘Incredible, yet true!’ ‘… Treaty of Versailles to a state of nullity’
- Argument: ‘… every day something of the burden of defeat will be transferred from Germany to France…’
Clemenceau was discontented.
The following answer would be first explained in terms of the language in Source H.
Clemenceau complained to the French government. From Source H, Clemenceau thought the decline of the German reparations was “incredible”. The word “incredible” means something that is difficult to believe in, implying Clemenceau disagreed on loosening punishment on Germany. Besides, such a wording contains a sarcastic meaning, condemning that the ruler neglected the immense casualties bear by the people. Hence, Clemenceau was discontented.
Clemenceau disagreed on the act of government. From Source H, Clemenceau criticized the current policy of the government was “incoherency”, meaning the ruler could neither please the international society nor its people. Besides, Clemenceau thought treating Germany nicely was in a state of “nullity”, meaning it was useless. This reflected decreasing the reparations by France was useless in maintaining peace. Thus, Clemenceau was disliked.
The answer would then be explained in terms of the argument of Source H.
Clemenceau criticized the government of its inability. From Source H, Clemenceau stated that the WWI was a mistake caused by Germany. For example, he claimed that the “guilty of the greatest crime in the history of Europe, a crime premeditated, prepared” was caused by Germany. Thus, Germany had to be punished. However, due to the weakness of the French government, or the “good graces of the Treaty’s executors”, that Germany was treated nicely. As a result, “the burden of defeat” would be “transferred from Germany to France”, meaning France failed to get the reparations it deserved. Hence, Clemenceau was discontented.
Clemenceau ridiculed at the weakness of the government. From Source H, Clemenceau criticized the attitude of the government was “incoherency” that it failed to punish Germany harshly as it wished to. This reduced “the Treaty of Versailles to a state of nullity”, failing to keep peace. Under this circumstance, the French government carried on “its work of peace at any price” was unwise as it only harmed its self-interest. Hence, Clemenceau was discontented.
(c) ‘As a factor in determining Europe’s international relations in the 1920s, the Treaty of Versailles became less and less important.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources G and H and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)
Performance was poor. This question required candidates to discuss whether the Treaty of Versailles became less and less important as a factor in determining Europe’s international relations in the 1920s. Quite a number of candidates failed to grasp the gist if the question and discussed major events in the 1930s that led to the rise of totalitarianism in Germany and deteriorating international relations, which were irrelevant to the question. Some candidates mistook the Treaty of Versailles for the Paris Peace Settlement, and unnecessarily discussed the discontent of Italy after the First World War. Some adopted the ‘other factor’ strategy and discussed irrelevant factors that affected international relations in the 1920s. Only the best candidates focused on international relations in the 1920s and made the Treaty of Versailles the subject of exploration, with valid reference to the Sources and using their own knowledge.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]
L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either the Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]
L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]
- The occupation of the Rhur, as a result of Germany’s repeated failures to pay the indemnity, marked the climax of Germany’s worsening relationship with the European countries. Later on, the Treaty of Versailles, which was too harsh and impractical to Germany, was actually revised by more lenient agreements and plans (such as Dawes Plan), which resulted in drastic cut in Germany’s indemnity as seen in Source H. (Source H and own knowledge)
- Source G shows that Britain and France were harsh to Germany when implementing the Treaty of Versailles. Later on, considering that the Treaty was too harsh to Germany, more sympathy was given to it by signing new international treaties like the Locarno Treaty and admitting Germany to the League of Nations. In other words, the harshness of the Treaty of Versailles always played an essential role in shaping the new policies. (Source G and own knowledge)
The statement is valid.
In the early 1920s, the Treaty of Versailles was important in determining Europe’s international relations.
First, the Treaty of Versailles determined the relations among Germany, Britain and France. From Source G, Britain and France initiated crisis against Germany due to the Treaty of Versailles. For instance, the golden egg of “German offer” failed to meet the “model of golden egg desired” by Britain and France, and the caption of the cartoon was “The Unsatisfactory Golden Egg”. This implied that Germany could not obey the terms stated in the Treaty of Versailles, leading to discontent of Britain and France that they would nearly start a war. Thus, the treaty was important in influencing Europe’s international relations.
Second, the Treaty of Versailles consolidated the Franco-British relations. From Source G, the Treaty of Versailles brought Britain closer to France. For example, the British man in the cartoon requested Germany of the “model of golden egg desired” while the French man took an axe to threaten Germany. This reflected Britain and France developed closer relations when asking Germany for reparations. Hence, the treaty was important in influencing Europe’s international relations.
Third, the Treaty of Versailles influenced the relations among Germany, Belgium and France. In my own knowledge, the treaty demanded Germany for paying 6.6 billion pounds. However, as Germany was unable to pay the reparations in 1923, France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr (a place with rich coal and steel resources) with a joint force of 100 thousand people. This reflected the term in the treaty paved way for conflicts among European countries. Hence, the treaty was important in influencing Europe’s international relations.
In the mis-1920s, the importance of the Treaty of Versailles in determining Europe’s international relations declined.
First, the powers invited Germany to join the peace treaty. From what I knew, Stresemann, the Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic, called the Locarno Conference in 1925 in order to improve Germany’s relations with the West. It re-established the west boundary of Germany which had stated in the Treaty of Versailles. The conference successfully increased communication between Germany and Western countries, paving way for further cooperation. This showed the Treaty of Versailles was only a shadow of peace, reflecting its decline in importance.
Second, Germany joined the League of Nations. From what I knew, the Locarno Pact (1925) was effective in improving the relations among Western European countries as well as reducing the hatred of powers against Germany. Thus, Germany could join the League of Nations in 1926, becoming the sixth permanent member that cooperated with Britain, France and Italy in maintaining world peace. Th reflected European countries greatly attempted to keep peace in the mid-1920s. Hence, the importance of the Treaty of Versailles declined.
In the late-1920s, the Treaty of Versailles was not important in determining Europe’s international relations.
First, the amount of reparations stated in the Treaty of Versailles decreased continuously. From Source G, the French government agreed to reduce the reparations bear by Germany. For instance, Clemenceau claimed that “the damages caused by Germany to persons and property in France at 136 billions of gold marks”, but it “had already dwindled to 68 billion” in “May 1921” while further declining to “22 billions of gold marks” in “1929”, which was “one-sixth of the agreed amount”. This reflected the reparations stated in the Treaty of Versailles reduced continuously. Hence, it became less and less important in influencing Europe’s international relations.
Second, the French government improved its relations with Germany so as to maintain peace. From Source G, Clemenceau criticized the French government carried on “its work of peace at any price”, neglecting the loss of the country and accepted the request when “Germany requesting, demanding, to have its burdens lightened”. It was unacceptable as it reduced “the Treaty of Versailles to a state of nullity”, failing to protect the interests of France as well as keeping peace. This showed the Treaty of Versailles had lost it influence. Hence, it was not important.
Third, Germany signed non-war convention with European countries. From what I knew, the European countries signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1928, announcing they would no longer include war as national policy and resolve international conflicts through peaceful means. This greatly released the international tension that the powers established friendly relations. This showed the importance of the Treaty of Versailles declined in the late-1920s.
To conclude, the Treaty of Versailles largely determined Europe’s international relations as a post-war peace treaty after WWI. However, as the collective security system achieved success in the 1920s, the powers reduced their hostility towards Germany. For instance, Germany’s request of reducing reparations was accepted and it was allowed to join the League of Nations. In 1930, the allied powers even withdrew their troops in Rhineland, marking the declining of importance of the Treaty of Versailles . Therefore, the statement is valid.