【2017】歐洲經統丨夏爾‧戴高樂



題目拆解





參考答案(中文版)


(a) 指出夏爾‧戴高樂在兩次演說中所使用的拒絕英國加入歐洲經濟共同體申請的一項理據。試從資料G引用兩項線索(1963及1967各一項),解釋你的答案。(3分)



考生表現


表現令人滿意。不少考生能夠使用資料G指出夏爾・戴高樂在1963年和1967年所使用的同一項理據,以拒絕英國在該兩年加入歐洲經濟共同體的申請。部分表現稍遜的考生誤解了1967年的資料,在該部分未能得分。



評分準則

* 有效理據1分,有效線索2分



理據:

例:

- 讓英國加入歐洲經濟共同體,會損害組織的歐洲本位性質。

線索:

例:

- 英國加入歐洲經濟共同體的其中一項影響是,「成員國……之間的凝聚力將不會持久;最終將會演變成為一個龐大的、依賴美國並受其指揮的大西洋共同體」。(1963)

- 英國的加入,意味著「歐洲大陸人就要求放棄建立歐洲人的歐洲。」(1967)


參考答案

戴高樂以損害歐洲利益為理據而拒絕英國加入歐洲經濟共同體。

於1963年的演說中,他指出讓「英國」加入歐洲經濟共同體「將會完全改變六國之間所有已確立的行動、協議和規則」,顯示英國與歐洲經濟共同體所奉行的政策持有分歧。以「共同市場」政策為例,戴高樂認為英國加入將會使其變成「一個完全不同於六國所建立的共同市場」,將會為已存在的政策帶來衝擊,損害組織內歐洲國家利益,故戴高樂以此作為理由反對之。

至1967年的演說中,戴高樂再次指出歐洲經濟共同體的目的是「組成一個真正的歐洲聯盟的政策」,希望透過共同合作使歐洲統合,加快重建和發展經濟。雖然英國政策「在某些方面」和與此方向相同,不過戴高變對此感到悲觀,他指自己實在「無法看到兩項政策如何融合」,對於英國加入經濟統合感到憂慮,認為她加入會損害組織利益,所以拒絕其加入。

(b) 資料H中的「微不足道的條件」是指甚麼?試參考資料H,解釋你的答案。(3分)



考生表現

表現平平。題目要求考生闡釋資料H中「微不足道的條件」所指的意思。考生的表現視乎他們能從漫畫中讀到什麼訊息。例如,考生若集中討論英國國旗扔下、法國國旗昇起,往往會較討論搬屋貨車表現得好,後者並未能清楚反映有關主權的訊息。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]

L2 答案清晰,能有效參考資料作出解釋。 [最多3分]


微不足道的條件:

例:

- 英國喪失權予法國。

解釋:

例:

- 聯合王國的國旗拉了下來,取而代之的是法國的國旗。

- 戴高樂衫形容為「英法國王夏爾」。


參考答案

資料H中的「微不足道的條件」是指英國放棄主權。

漫畫家把資料H夏爾.戴高樂描繪成「英法國王」,而同時漫畫中的軍人把英國國旗降下,並升起法國國旗,顯示漫畫家認為法國要求英國放低自身主權,捨棄民族特色,改以跟從法國的傳統,故「微不足道的條件」是指英國需捨棄自身國家主權。

同時,漫畫家把來往「巴黎」和「倫敦」的「搬運服務」物流貨車駛進英國領土上,由此可推斷漫畫家認為英國需要放棄自己主權,從而便利於英國與法國之間的人力資源往來,刺激經濟發展,故「微不足道的條件」實為放棄主權。

(c) 1950年代至1970年代,有哪些因素妨礙歐洲的經濟合作?試參考資料G及H,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(6分)



考生表現

表現令人滿意。題目要求考生討論1950年代至1970年代妨礙歐洲經濟合作的因素。不少考生在答卷中表現出對相關史實有所認識。他們能夠解釋不同因素在有關時期內如何妨礙經濟合作。部分表現稍遜的答卷僅討論了一個因素及/或引用無關題旨的史實,因而失分。



評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]

L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多3分]

L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多6分]


例:

- 列國之間一直存在衝突。(資料G)

- 存在著喪失主權的威脅。(資料H)

- 歐洲分裂成為兩個陣營。(個人所知)

- 歐洲存在著互相敵對的組織,例如歐洲自由貿易聯盟對歐洲經濟共同體。(個人所知)

- 領袖扮演著一定角色。夏爾・戴高樂強烈反對英國加入歐洲經濟共同體。(資料G及個人所知)


參考答案

資料G反映政策上的分歧妨礙歐洲經濟合作。資料G指「英國和歐洲自由貿易聯盟」的加入將會「改變六國」一直以來所「已確立的行動、協議和規則」,而「共同市場」更會被轉變成「不同於六國所建立的」,顯示歐洲各國對於政策上(尤其是「共同市場」)存有分歧,阻礙她們統合。

同時,資料G反映超級大國(尤其「美國」)的挑戰也阻礙歐洲經濟合作。資料G指「共同體」的統合面對「與其他國家的經濟關係問題」,戴高樂更憂慮「歐洲共同體」變成「依賴美國」而且「受其指揮的大西洋共同體」,顯示超級大國的挑戰也妨礙歐洲經濟合作。

至於資料H指出主權問題也阻礙歐洲經濟合作。漫畫家在資料H中把戴高樂描繪成「英法國王」,並且士兵把「英國國旗」換成「法國國旗」,反映漫畫家認為歐洲統合將會損害國家主權,因而對統合卻步,故主權問題妨礙歐洲經濟合作。

就我所知,政策上的分歧確實阻礙歐洲經濟合作。不同國家對於經濟統合持不同期望,如英國反對共同農業政策,認為此將會有損其本國農地發展,而法國、德國等更就資源分配上出現分歧,統合一度停滯不前,所以政策上分歧確實阻止歐洲經濟合作。

同時,冷戰因素也阻礙歐洲經濟合作。美國和蘇聯分別推出馬歇爾計劃(1947)和莫洛托夫計劃(1947)援助西歐和東歐國家,使歐洲統合劃分成經濟互助委會員(1949)和歐洲經濟合作組織(1948)兩大陣營,經濟發展差距漸趨擴大,對日後歐洲整體統合而言造成阻礙。

最後,合作範疇的分歧亦阻礙歐洲經濟統合,隨著合作取得成效,內六國於1960年代加強合作,包括成立共同市場、共同農業政策等。然而,部分國家希望合作局限於貿易往來、資源調配等,分歧妨礙合作,如英國於1960年成立歐洲自由貿易聯盟對抗歐洲經濟共同體(1958),影響歐洲經濟合作進程。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify one justification that was used by Charles de Gaulle in both speeches to reject Britain’s application to join the EEC. Support your answer with two clues from Source G, one from 1963 and one from 1967. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was satisfactory. Many candidates made use of Source G to identify one justification used by Charles de Gaulle to reject Britain’s application to join the EEC in both 1963 and 1967. Some weak candidates misread the 1967 source, and did not score any marks for that part.

Marking Schemes

* One mark for valid justification and tow marks for valid clues


Justification: e.g.

- Admitting Britain would harm the European nature of the EEC.


Clues: e.g.

- An impact of Britain’s entry on the EEC was that ‘the cohesion of its members… would not endure for long, and that ultimately it would appear as a colossal Atlantic community under American dependence and direction.’ (1963) - Britain’s entry might mean that ‘the continentals would have to renounce forever a European Europe.’ (1967)

Suggested Answer

Charles de Gaulle used “harming members’ interests” as justification to reject Britain’s application to join the EEC. From Source G, in 1963, he pointed out that “the entry of Great Britain” into EEC would “completely change the whole of the actions, agreements and rules which have already been established between the Six”. It implied that there was disparity between policies of Britain and EEC. Using “Common Market” as example, he perceived the participation of Britain would make it “no longer resemble the one which the Six built”. The application of Britain would damage the current policies of EEC. Using “harming members’ interests” as justification, he rejected Britain’s application to join the EEC. From Source G, in 1967, he recalled the aim of EEC, which was to “form a truly European union”. Through economic cooperation, reconstruction and economic development could be sped up. Even though “in various parts” British policies were similar to EEC’s, he believed that “we cannot see how both policies could merge”. Using “harming members’ interests” as justification, he rejected Britain’s application to join the EEC.

(b) What was the ‘trifling condition’ mentioned in Source H? Explain your answer with reference to Source H. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. The question required candidates to elaborate what the ‘trifling condition’ in Source H was about. Performance depended on what candidates could draw from the cartoon. Candidates who focused on the British flag being thrown away and the French flag being raised tended to perform much better than those focusing on, say, the removal car, which did not convey a clear message about the issue of sovereignty.

Marking Schemes

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer, with good reference to the Source in marking explanation. [max. 3]


Trifling condition: e.g.

- Britain’s loss of sovereignty to France. Explanation: e.g.

- The nation flag of the United Kingdom was dropped to give place for the French flag. - Charles de Gaulle was described as ‘King Charles of Britain and France’.

Suggested Answer

The ‘trifling condition’ was giving up Britain’s sovereignty. From Source H, Charles de Gaulle was depicted as “King of Britain and France”; meanwhile, soldiers put up French flag instead of British one. It implied that France requested Britain to give up its sovereignty, abandon its national characteristics and follow France’s. The ‘trifling condition’ was giving up Britain’s sovereignty. From Source H, a truck printed with “removals in Paris and London” was driving into the territory of Britain. It showed that Britain had to give up its sovereignty, allowing the flow of capital and labor between Britain and France to boost economic development. The ‘trifling condition’ was giving up Britain’s sovereignty.

(c) What factors hindered economic cooperation in Europe from the 1950s to the 1970s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources G and H, and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was satisfactory. The question candidates to discuss factors that hindered economic cooperation in Europe from the 1950s to the 1970s. many candidates demonstrated understanding of the relevant knowledge in their answers. They were able to explain how different factors hindered economic cooperation in the required period. Some weak answers only discussed one factor and/or cited irrelevant historical facts, thus losing marks.

Marking Schemes

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either the Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 3] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [max. 6]


e.g.

- Traditional conflicts between powers. (Source G) - Threat of losing sovereignty. (Source H) - Division of European into two blocs. (own knowledge) - there were hostile organizations such as EFTA vs. EEC. (own knowledge) - Leaders played a role. Charles de Gaulle was strongly opposed to British entry into the EEC. (Source G and own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

From Source G, disagreement over policies hindered economic cooperation in Europe. Charles de Gaulle pointed out that “the entry of Great Britain” into EEC would “completely change the whole of the actions, agreements and rules which have already been established between the Six”. Meanwhile, “Common Market” would “no longer resemble the one which the Six built”. It implied disagreement over policies (Common Market) hindered economic cooperation in Europe. From Source G, challenges from superpowers (especially US) hindered economic cooperation in Europe. “The community of Europe “ faced “problems of economic relations with other countries”. Charles de Gaulle worried that EEC would “appear as a colossal Atlantic community under American dependence and direction”. It reflected that challenges from superpowers hindered economic cooperation in Europe. From Source H, protection of sovereignty hindered economic cooperation in Europe. Charles de Gaulle was depicted as “King of Britain and France”; meanwhile, soldiers put up French flag instead of British one. It implied that European cooperation would harm national sovereignty. In order to protect it, some countries may refuse to cooperate. Protection of sovereignty hindered economic cooperation in Europe. From my own knowledge, disagreement over policies hindered economic cooperation in Europe. Different countries had different expectations towards cooperation. For instance, Britain opposed to the Common Agricultural Policy to protect its local agricultural development. Meanwhile, France and Germany had disagreement over the distribution of resources. These led to a halt in cooperation. Disagreement over policies did hinder economic cooperation in Europe. From my own knowledge, Cold War hindered economic cooperation in Europe. The US and USSR launches Marshall Plan (1947) and Molotov Plan (1947) respectively in assistance to Western and Eastern European countries. Europe was split into two economic blocs – Organization for European Economic Cooperation (1948) and Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (1949). This widened the disparity between economic development of Eastern and Western Europe, hindering future cooperation. From my own knowledge, disagreement over the scope of cooperation hindered economic cooperation in Europe. Inner Six expanded their scope of cooperation in 1960, including the set up of Common Market and Common Agricultural Policy. At the same time, some countries hoped to restricted the cooperation in trading and flow of resources. In 1960, Britain set up European Free Trade Association against European Economic Cooperation (1958), hindering the progress of economic cooperation in Europe.