【2016】香港丨廣華醫院



題目拆解




參考答案(中文版)

(a) 描述資料A所反映香港醫療發展的一項趨勢,試以資料A的線索,支持你的答案。(2分)

考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能夠指出香港醫療發展的一項趨勢,並以資料中的有效線索為據。

評分準則

* 一項趨勢並附以相關線索 [最多2分]



例︰

- 住院病人中,西醫治療漸成主流

- 住院病人中,選擇中醫治療者日漸減少

- 外科手術逐漸被華人接受

參考答案

資料A反映西醫治療愈受重視的趨勢。

先從住院病人方面討論。

從資料A的數據分析,選擇中醫治療的病人由1912年的63.2%下降至1936年38.22%;然而,選擇西醫治療的病人由1912年的36.8%上升至1936年的61.78%。從上述數據分析,反映病人面對嚴重疾病時,漸選擇西醫科學治療代替傳統中醫調理,顯示西醫治療愈來愈受病人接受,被受重視且選擇的趨勢。

現從門診病人分析。

雖然1912年至1936年間中醫治療仍屬病人的主流選擇,佔超過八成病人選擇中醫治療作普遍病痛的求醫選擇。

然而,仔細分析資料A的數據,面對普通疾病選擇中醫治療的病人由1912年的91.27%下降至1936年的83.08%;相反,選擇西醫治療的病人則由1912年的8.73%上升至1936年的16.92%。分析上述數據,雖然中醫治療仍屬於病人的主流選擇,但選擇西醫治療求診的病人亦持上升的趨勢,顯示西醫治療於普通門診亦漸受病人考慮,愈來愈受到重視且選擇的趨勢。

(b) 引用資料B一項線索,並解釋所引線索如何反映當時廣華醫院享有崇高的社會地位。(3分)



考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生證明廣華醫院當時享有崇高的社會地位。大部分考生能夠按主禮嘉賓的崇高社會地位作出推論。然而,部分表現較遜的考生所用線索並不恰當,例如嘉賓的種族背景,這與題旨無關。

評分準則

* 有效線索1分,有效解釋1分



線索︰

例︰

- 出席者包括香港總督盧吉爵士,及定例局議員

解釋︰

例︰

- 殖民地最高級官員和一眾社會賢達出席廣華醫院的開幕禮,反映該醫院地位崇高。

參考答案

各社會名人均出席廣華醫院的開幕禮反映其有崇高的社會地位。

資料B的照片為廣華醫院的開幕禮,而當時社會上名人如時任港督盧吉爵士、定例局議員和東華醫院總理等均出席,互相祝賀廣華醫院的成立。從上述相片分析,廣華醫院受到港英政府的重視,派出政府代表如港督和定例局議員出席,顯示廣華醫院享有崇高的社會地位。

(c) 「20世紀上半葉期間,香港是個傳統與現代共存的城市。」你是否同意此說?此參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(8分)



考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生討論現代與傳統如何塑造20世紀上半葉的香港社會。考生能夠善用資料,然而個人所知部分的討論往往失之籠絡(例如,「香港有西式建築」)。考生最少應該為相關例子提供具體的名稱,如上例是相關建築物的名稱。考生應該明白,「現代」雖然往往與西方有關,「傳統」卻不一定都是東方的事物。例如,基督宗教在1930年代被華人視為現代的象徵,但基督宗教本身卻是來自西方和中東的傳統。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料和個人所知作答。 [最多2分]

L2 欠缺均衡,僅能有效使用資料或個人所知作答;或僅能討論傳統或現代。 [最多4分]

L3 答案合理且均衡,能有效使用資料和個人所知作答,及能討論傳統及現代。 [最多8分]

例︰

- 傳統

- 現代

- 醫療

- 門診方面,中醫仍是主流(資料A)

- 推動西醫治療(資料A)

- 衣著

- 華人穿著馬褂(資料B)

- 西方穿著洋服(資料B)

- 娛樂

- 傳統粵劇仍然流行(個人所知)

- 電影成為時興,成為華語電影的先驅(個人所知)

- 節日

- 端午節、孔聖誕、重陽節(個人所知)

- 耶誕聖誕、復活節(個人所知)

- 價值觀

- 服從權威,採用儒家秩序(個人所知)

- 新思想、新文化、中國國民黨和中國共黨產等政黨活動(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言大程度上成立。

醫療方面,資料A指出1912-1936年間香港病人分別選以傳統中醫和現代西醫治療,而住院人數至1936年分別佔約40%和60%,各佔約一半,反映香港實為傳統與現代並存的城市。

服飾方面,資料B的盧吉爵士身穿西服,且頭戴紳士帽,為現代衣著裝扮;而照片上仍有不少穿著中式服裝,且頭留長辮的男子,實為傳統打扮,故香港為傳統與現代並存的城市。

建築方面,就我所知,尖沙咀鐘樓(1915)具愛德華風格建成,為現代西式設計;而元朗屏山圍村屬鄧氏家族所處,具傳統圍村色彩,為傳統建築,可見香港為傳統與現代並存的城市。

飲食方面,進食時港人分別按需要而選擇筷子(傳統)或刀叉(現代)用膳,此現象亦暗示香港為傳統與現代並存的城市。

運動方面,傳統蹴鞠(足球)運動普及於20世紀上半葉的香港,如1908年成立南華足球隊,球迷紛紛加入球隊為港作賽;現代運動如乒乓球和羽毛球亦屬港人消遺的熱門,反映香港為傳統與現代並存的城市。

節日方面,港人重視傳統節日如清明節,於當日拜祭先人;同時亦會慶祝現代節日如情人節和聖誕節,為愛人親朋送上祝福,反映香港為傳統與現代並存的城市。

然而,小程度上香港並非完全傳統與現代並存的城市。

醫療方面,以一般門診而言,資料A反映至1936年仍高達83.08%病人選擇以中醫治療,而選以西醫求治的病人僅佔16.92%,反映傳統中醫治療仍為社會主流所選,香港非完全傳統與現代並存的城市。

服飾方面,綜觀資料B的圖片,大多數都穿著中式服裝,打扮傳統。而當中僅得少數如盧吉爵士穿著西服,頭戴紳士帽,可見香港非完全傳統與現代並在的城市。

可見,題目所言大程度上成立。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) Describe one trend in medical development in Hong Kong as reflected in Source A. Support your answer with clues from Source A. (2 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to identify one trend in medical development in Hong Kong, with valid clues from the Source as evidence.

Marking Schemes

* One trend plus relevant clues

e.g.

- Western treatment become prevailing among the in-patients

- Chinese treatment was increasingly less popular among the in-patients

- Surgery became accepted by the Chinese

Suggested Answer

Source A showed Western treatment was gaining prevalence.

First, it will be explained in terms of in-patients.

From Source A, patients opted for Chinese treatment dropped from 63.2% in 1912 to 38.22% in 1936. Meanwhile, patients opted for Western treatment increased fro 36.8% in 1912 to 61.78% in 1936. It implied that patients suffering from acute diseases were trending to replace Chinese treatment with Western one. Western treatment was gaining prevalence among patients.

Second, it will be explained in terms of out-patients.

Chinese treatment remained a dominant choice among patients in 1912-1936, with over 80% of patients chose Chinese treatment.

From Source A, in the face of common disorder, patients opted for Chinese treatment decreased from 91.27% in 1912 to 83.08% in 1936. On the contrary, only 8.73% of patients opted for Western treatment in 1912, it further increased to 16.92% in 1936. Although Chinese treatment remained a dominant choice among patients, Western treatment gained popularity. Western treatment was becoming prevalent and more people are opting for that.

(b) Cite one clue from Source B, and explain how the clue you cite reflects that the Kwong Wah Hospital enjoyed high social status at the time. (2 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. The question required candidates to prove that the Kwong Wah Hospital enjoyed high social status at the time. Most candidates were able to make inferences based on the officiating guest’s high social ranking. However, some weak candidates used inappropriate clues, such as guests’ ethnic background, which was irrelevant.

Marking Scheme

* One mark for one valid clue, and one mark for valid explanation


Clue:

e.g.

- Those attended the ceremony included Governor of Hong Kong Sir Frederick Lugard and members of the Legislative Council.

Explanation:

e.g.

- Head of the Colony and a cohort of celebrities attending the ceremony reflected the high social status of the hospital.

Suggested Answer

Public figures attended the opening ceremony of the Kwong Wah Hospital, which reflected its high social status.

From Source B, the picture showed the opening ceremony of the Kwong Wah Hospital. Public figures like Sir Frederick Lugard (Governor of Hong Kong), members of the Legislative Council and directors of the Tung Wah Hospital attended the ceremony. They celebrated the establishment of the Kwong Wah Hospital. It implied that the British Hong Kong government paid a great attention on the Kwong Wah Hospital, sending out government representatives to congratulate its opening. The Kwong Wah Hospital enjoyed high social status.

(c) ‘In the first half of the 20th century, Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. The question required candidates to discuss how modernity and tradition shaped the Hong Kong society in the first half of the 20th century. Candidates were able to make good use of the Sources. However, discussions based on own knowledge tended to be too general (for example, ‘There were buildings of Western architectural style in Hong Kong’). Candidates should at least give specific names for such examples, in this case the names of the buildings. Candidates are reminded that whereas ‘modernity’ is always associated with the West, ‘tradition’ is not necessarily all oriental. For example, Christianity was to the Chinese in the 1930s a symbol of modernity, but it was itself a tradition from the West and Middle East.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [Max. 2]

L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either the Sources or own knowledge; or merely discussing either tradition or modernity. [Max. 4]

L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both the Sources and own knowledge, and in discussing both tradition and modernity. [Max. 8]


Examples:

- Tradition

- Modernity

- Medicine

- Chinese medicine was still popular among the out-parents (Source A)

- Promotion of Western medicine (Source A)

- Attire

- Chinese wore Manchu-style jackets (magua) (Source B)

- Westerners wore Western suits (Source B)

- Entertainment

- Traditional Cantonese operas were still in vogue (own knowledge)

- Movie became a strong presence, and Hong Kong became a precursor of the Chinese language movies (own knowledge)

- Festival

- Festivals of Dragon Boat, Confucius’s birthday and Double-ninth (own knowledge)

- Christmas and Easter (own knowledge)

- Social values

- Submission to authority and adoption of Confucian order (own knowledge)

- New thoughts, new cultures, activities of political parties such as Kiomintang and the Chinese Communist Party (own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

To a large extent, the claim is valid.

In terms of medical, from Source A, there were both patients opting for Chinese and Western treatment in 1912-1936. In 1936, 40% of patients chose Chinese treatment while 60% chose Western one. The distribution reached nearly half-half. It reflected Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of costume, from Source B, Sir Frederick Lugard wore Western suit with a hat on, which was a modernized dressing. At the same time, many people wore Chinese costumes with long braids. It was a traditional clothing. Therefore, Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of architecture, from my own knowledge, the Clock Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui (1915) was built in Edwardian Classical Revival style. It had a modernized, Western design. Moreover, Yuen Long Ping Shan walled village demonstrated a strong vibe of traditional style in architecture. Therefore, Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of cuisine, from my own knowledge, people used chopsticks (tradition) or knives and forks (modernity) to eat, according to their needs. This phenomenon showed that Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of sports, from my own knowledge, Cuju (ancient Chinese football) was prevalent in Hong Kong in the first half of the 20th century. In 1908, South China Atlantic Association was established. Football lovers actively joined the association and took part in football competitions. Modernized sports like table tennis and badminton were also popular among Hong Kong people. It reflected that Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of festivals, from my own knowledge, Hong Kong people paid a great attention on traditional festivals like Ching Ming Festival. It was a day for people to commemorate deceased ancestors and family members. At the same time, people would celebrate Western festivals like Valentine’s Day and Christmas. It reflected that Hong Kong was a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

That said, to a small extent, Hong Kong was not a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of medical, from Source A, 83.08% of patients opted for Chinese treatment in 1936. Patients opted for Western treatment only accounted for 16.92%. It reflected that Chinese treatment was still a dominant choice among patients. Hong Kong was not a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

In terms of costume, from Source B, the majority of people wore Chinese costume and dressed traditionally. Only minority like Sir Frederick Lugard were wearing Western suit with a hat on. Hong Kong was not a city where tradition and modernity co-existed.

Therefore, to a large extent, the claim is valid.