L1 應歸納態度，惟解釋含混，未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分]
L2 能歸納態度，解釋清晰有力，亦能有效運用資料作出解釋。 [最多3分]
態度︰ 例︰ - 歡迎的態度
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]
L2 欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知；及/ 或能討論改革開放前後之蛻變，惟前後所討論的方面不符。 [最多4分]
L3 答案合理且均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知，所討論改革開放前後蛻變的方面前後相符。 [最多8分]
改革開放大程度上為中國帶來蛻變。 外交方面，改革開放後中國由仇外轉變成娼外。 參考資料E，紅衛兵批評資料作者「裡裡外外都那麼外國」，質疑作者「是中國人還是外國人」，顯示紅衛兵對作者外國化的生活感到不滿，故改革開放前中國排外的傾向。 同時，資料E的紅衛兵批評房屋裡「每個房間都有進口貨」，認為作者外國格調的家是「最惡劣」和「最反動」，可見紅衛兵對外國事物感到不滿，改革開前中國排外的傾向。 然而，就我所知，1978改革開放政策開放分階段開放城市，如1980開放深圳、珠海、廈門等經濟特區，吸引外商前來貿易，增加中國與西方間接觸，並改善彼此關係，為中國帶來改變。 資料F指改革開放後麥當勞於深圳開業（1990），市民「熱情」和「參觀嘗新」，導致「開首三小時後便吃掉麥當勞預備一星期使用的食品」，暗示民眾歡迎外商開鋪，對外國商品抱支持的態度，實為蛻變。 資料F的《深圳特區報》為中國共產黨深圳黨委的官方報章，而此報於麥當勞開業當天採訪報導，並指出副市長李廣鎮出席其開幕儀式，反映中共政府於改革開放後接受外商前來貿易，實為蛻變。 教育方面，改革開放後中國由忽視知識轉為重視學習。 就我所知，改革開放前中國忽視教育，如於文化大革命期間主張「讀書無用論」，直指「愈讀愈反動」，認為知識愈多只會愈作反，更策劃上山下鄉運動（1968）安排全國約1600萬知識青年到農村再改造，斷送一代人材。 然而，中國1978年推行改革開放後，認為教育乃是實現「四個現代化」的基礎，國家富強必先發展教育事務，如於1986年推行《義務教育法》，重開教育機構以提升國民知識水平，實為蛻變。 但小程度上，改革開放未能為中國帶來蛻變。 政治方面，改革開放後中國依然保留個人崇拜的傳統。 參考資料E，文革期間（1966－1976）紅衛兵批評作者西化的同時，埋怨作者家中「就是沒有我們敬愛的偉大領袖的肖象」，反映紅衛兵鍾情於偉大領導，改革開放前中國呈偶像崇拜的特徵。 就我所知，儘管中國於1978推行改革開放，但鄧小平於1980年承諾會永遠保留天安門城樓上的毛澤東遺像，偶像崇拜並沒因改革開放而消失，未能為中國帶來蛻變。 可見，改革開放大程度上為中國帶來蛻變。
(a) Infer one characteristic of the Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution. Support your answer with one clue from Source E. (2 marks)
Performance was good. Most of the candidates were able to infer one characteristic of the Red Guards from one relevant clue from the Source. The weakest candidates copied from the Source but did not answer the question.
* One mark for valid characteristic and one mark for a valid clue
- Personality cult of Mao Zedong (‘but there is not a single portrait of our beloved Great Leader’)
- Anti-foreignism (‘Why do you have to drink foreign beverage? Why do you have to eat foreign food?)
The characteristic of the Red Guards is anti-foreign. From Source E, the Red Guard saw “coffee in the cup”, “a jar of jam with its label in English” and “foreign books“ in the author’s house. The Red Guard criticized, “why are you so foreign altogether”, judging the author “the worst of all, the most reactionary of all”. The Red Guard even questioned the author “are you a Chinese or are you a foreigner? ”. It implied that the Red Guard showed discontent toward the foreign lifestyle of the author, and even put him under fire. The characteristic of the Red Guards is anti-foreign.
(b) What can you conclude from Source F about the Shenzhen government’s attitude towards the entry of McDonald’s into China? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)
Performance was good. Most of the candidates made good use of the Source to prove that the Shenzhen government welcomed the opening of China’s first McDonald’s in the city. However, some weak answers cited the excitement of the Shenzhen people to prove the government’s attitude. This misuse of evidence scored low marks.
L1 Able to conclude the view, marred by vague explanation and inability to use the Source effectively. [max. 1] L2 Able to conclude the view, with clear and valid explanation, and effective use of Source. [max. 3]
- Shenzhen Special Zone Daily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The news report on McDonald’s was positive, reflecting a welcoming attitude on the part of the Shenzhen government.
The Shenzhen government showed positive attitude towards the entry of McDonald’s into China.
From Source F, Shenzhen Special Zone Baily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The newspaper reports were published when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen opened. It pointed out Li Guangzhen, Shenzhen’s Deputy Mayor, attended McDonald’s opening ceremony and congratulated McDonald’s on behalf of the city government. It implied that the Shenzhen government welcomed the opening of McDonald in Shenzhen, showing a positive attitude.
(c) Do you agree that the Reform and Opening-up policy of China after 1978 transformed China? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F and using your own knowledge of China’s development up to 2000. (8 marks)
Performance was fair. The question required candidates to compare China before and after the Reform and Opening-up Policy of 1978, in order to conclude whether China was transformed (fundamentally changed). Only the best candidates were able to provide a balanced treatment of both periods and focus on the key word ‘transform’. Many answers, however, displayed one or more of the following flaws: narrating facts about the two periods without making any comparisons; discussing the impact of the Reform and Opening-up Policy without considering developments before it; not distinguishing Sources from own knowledge.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either the Sources or own knowledge; and/or Able to discuss transformation before and after Reform and Opening-up, but the aspect(s) discussed before and after that is not consistent. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both the Sources and own knowledge, with matching aspect(s) of transformation discussed before and after the Reform and Opening-up. [max. 8]
- The attitude towards foreign matters was hostile before the Reform and Opening-up, but it become more welcoming after that. (Source E and F) - Concerning means to achieve modernization, mass movements were employed before the Reform and Opening-up, whereas more practical, ‘scientific’ methods were used after that. Not transformed: e.g.
- Politically, the PPC was still a one-party state, with socialism as its guiding principle. (own knowledge)
- Chinese people are still suspicious of foreign countries. ‘Foreign influence’ is still an accusation that can be seen from time to time. (own knowledge)
- There was Western food in China before and after 1978. (Sources E and F)
To a large extent, the Reform and Opening-up transformed China. In terms of diplomacy, China transformed from anti-foreign to embracing the West after the Reform and Opening-up. From Source E, the Red Guard criticized the author, “why are you so foreign altogether”, and even questioned “are you a Chinese or are you a foreigner? ”. It implied that the Red Guard showed discontent toward the foreign lifestyle of the author. Before the Reform and Opening-up, China was anti-foreign. From Source E, the Red Guard criticized “in every room in this house there are imported things”, judging the author’s house “the worst of all, the most reactionary of all”. It implied that the Red Guards showed hatred toward the foreign-related items. Before the Reform and Opening-up, China was anti-foreign. From my own knowledge, in 1978 the Reform and Opening-up, cities were opened up stage-by-stage. For instance, in 1980, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Xiamen were opened up as Special Economic Zones, which aimed to attract foreign trade. This increased exchange between China and the West, thus improving their relationships and transformed China. From Source F, when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen was opened in 1990, residents were “eager” to “visit and try out new things”. “Within the first three hours of its opening, the Shenzhen customers had already eaten up foods what McDonald’s had prepared for a week’s consumption”. It implied that citizens welcomed and adopted a positive attitude towards the foreign commodities. There was a transformation. From Source F, Shenzhen Special Zone Baily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The newspaper reports were published when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen was opened. It pointed out Li Guangzhen, Shenzhen’s Deputy Mayor, attended McDonald’s opening ceremony. It implied that the PRC government welcomed foreign business after the Reform and Opening-up, which was a transformation. In terms of education, China transformed from neglecting professional knowledge to focusing on education after the Reform and Opening-up. From my own knowledge, before the Reform and Opening-up, China lacked focus on education. During Cultural Revolution, people were brainwashed with “the more you study, the more foolish you become”. 16,000,000 educated youth were sent to the rural area in the “up to the mountain, down to the countryside” movement. A generation of talents was lost. From my own knowledge, as the Reform and Opening-up started in 1978, education was regarded as one of the “four goals of modernization”. To build a strong and rich country, education was an essential element. In 1986, it issued the Compulsory Education Law. By reorganizing the educational institutions, the education level of citizens could be enhanced. There was a transformation. That said, to a small extent, the Reform and Opening-up did not transform China. In terms of politics, China kept the cult of personality even after the Reform and Opening-up. From Source E, during Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), not only did the Red Guards criticize the Western culture, but also blamed the author for not having “a single portrait of our beloved Great Leader”. It reflected that the Red Guards worshipped the great leader. There was a characteristic of cult of personality before the Reform and Opening-up. From my own knowledge, even China launched the Reform and Opening-up in 1978, Deng Xiaoping promised to keep the portrait of Mao Zedong on Tiananmen. Cult of personality did not disappear even after the Reform and Opening-up. It did not transform China. Thus, to a large extent, the Reform and Opening-up transformed China.