【2016】中國丨麥當勞



題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)


(a) 推斷文化大革命紅衛兵的一項特徵。試以資料E的一項線索,支持你的答案。(2分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能夠引用資料一項線索推斷紅衛兵的一項特徵。能力最遜的考生僅引錄資料,未能回答題目。

評分準則

* 有效特徵1分,有效線索1分


例︰ - 對毛澤東的個人崇拜(「可就是沒有我們敬愛的偉大領袖的肖像,連一幅都沒有」) - 排外(「你為什麼要喝外國飲料?為什麼要吃外國食品?」)

參考答案

紅衛兵的特徵是反外國。 紅衛兵目睹資料E作者「還有一點咖啡的杯子」、附「英文商標的果醬」和「外國書本」後,便批評作者「裡裡外外都那麼外國」,是「最惡劣」和「最反動」的,更質疑作者「是中國人還是外國人」,反映紅衛兵對作者的外國化生活感到不滿,並加以批判,故持反外國的特徵。

(b) 從資料F歸納深圳政府對麥當勞進入中國所持的態度。試參考資料F,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能善用資料,證明深圳政府歡迎在該市開設中國第一間麥當勞餐廳。然而,部分稍遜的答卷引錄深圳「居民」的喜悅來證明「政府」的態度,論據錯配,導致扣分。

評分準則

L1 應歸納態度,惟解釋含混,未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 能歸納態度,解釋清晰有力,亦能有效運用資料作出解釋。 [最多3分]

態度︰ 例︰ - 歡迎的態度


解釋︰ 例︰ - 《深圳特區報》是中國共產黨深圳黨委的官方報章。有關報導對麥當勞十分正面,反映出深圳官方歡迎之態。

參考答案

深圳政府對麥當勞進入中國持歡迎的正面態度。 資料F的《深圳特區報》為中國共產黨深圳黨委的官方報章,它於麥當勞開業當天採訪報導,內容指出副市長李廣鎮出席開幕儀式,代表政府表示祝賀,意味著深圳政府樂於麥當勞在廣洲開業,所以持歡迎的正面態度。

(c) 你是否同意中國1978年後的改革開放政策為中國蛻變?試參考資料E及F,並就你對中國直至2000年的發展所知,解釋你的答案。(8分)


考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生比較1978年改革開放政策實施前後中國的情況,以判定中國是否蛻變,「蛻變」即「根本轉變」之意。只有能力最佳的考生能夠均衡處理兩個時期,並將焦點放在關鍵詞「蛻變」。然而,不少答卷出現下述一種或更多的毛病︰陳述該兩個時期的史實而沒有作出比較;僅討論改革開放政策的影響而沒有考慮之前的發展;未能分辨資料及個人所知。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 欠缺均衡,僅能有效運用資料或個人所知;及/ 或能討論改革開放前後之蛻變,惟前後所討論的方面不符。 [最多4分] L3 答案合理且均衡,能有效運用資料及個人所知,所討論改革開放前後蛻變的方面前後相符。 [最多8分]

蛻變︰ 例︰ - 對外國事物態度上,改革開放前抱敵視態度,改革開放後較為態度。(資料E及F) - 在實行現代化的手段上,改革開放前信靠群眾運動,改革開放後開始使用務實、「科學」的手法。(個人所知) 未能有蛻變︰ 例︰ - 政治上,中華人民共和國仍然是一黨專政,治國原則仍然是社會主義。(個人所知) - 中國人對外國仍抱持懷疑的態度,不時指摘「外國勢力」干預中國。(個人所知) - 1978年前後,中國也有西式食物。(資料E及F)

參考答案

改革開放大程度上為中國帶來蛻變。 外交方面,改革開放後中國由仇外轉變成娼外。 參考資料E,紅衛兵批評資料作者「裡裡外外都那麼外國」,質疑作者「是中國人還是外國人」,顯示紅衛兵對作者外國化的生活感到不滿,故改革開放前中國排外的傾向。 同時,資料E的紅衛兵批評房屋裡「每個房間都有進口貨」,認為作者外國格調的家是「最惡劣」和「最反動」,可見紅衛兵對外國事物感到不滿,改革開前中國排外的傾向。 然而,就我所知,1978改革開放政策開放分階段開放城市,如1980開放深圳、珠海、廈門等經濟特區,吸引外商前來貿易,增加中國與西方間接觸,並改善彼此關係,為中國帶來改變。 資料F指改革開放後麥當勞於深圳開業(1990),市民「熱情」和「參觀嘗新」,導致「開首三小時後便吃掉麥當勞預備一星期使用的食品」,暗示民眾歡迎外商開鋪,對外國商品抱支持的態度,實為蛻變。 資料F的《深圳特區報》為中國共產黨深圳黨委的官方報章,而此報於麥當勞開業當天採訪報導,並指出副市長李廣鎮出席其開幕儀式,反映中共政府於改革開放後接受外商前來貿易,實為蛻變。 教育方面,改革開放後中國由忽視知識轉為重視學習。 就我所知,改革開放前中國忽視教育,如於文化大革命期間主張「讀書無用論」,直指「愈讀愈反動」,認為知識愈多只會愈作反,更策劃上山下鄉運動(1968)安排全國約1600萬知識青年到農村再改造,斷送一代人材。 然而,中國1978年推行改革開放後,認為教育乃是實現「四個現代化」的基礎,國家富強必先發展教育事務,如於1986年推行《義務教育法》,重開教育機構以提升國民知識水平,實為蛻變。 但小程度上,改革開放未能為中國帶來蛻變。 政治方面,改革開放後中國依然保留個人崇拜的傳統。 參考資料E,文革期間(1966-1976)紅衛兵批評作者西化的同時,埋怨作者家中「就是沒有我們敬愛的偉大領袖的肖象」,反映紅衛兵鍾情於偉大領導,改革開放前中國呈偶像崇拜的特徵。 就我所知,儘管中國於1978推行改革開放,但鄧小平於1980年承諾會永遠保留天安門城樓上的毛澤東遺像,偶像崇拜並沒因改革開放而消失,未能為中國帶來蛻變。 可見,改革開放大程度上為中國帶來蛻變。



參考答案(英文版)


(a) Infer one characteristic of the Red Guards in the Cultural Revolution. Support your answer with one clue from Source E. (2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most of the candidates were able to infer one characteristic of the Red Guards from one relevant clue from the Source. The weakest candidates copied from the Source but did not answer the question.

Marking Schemes

* One mark for valid characteristic and one mark for a valid clue


e.g.

- Personality cult of Mao Zedong (‘but there is not a single portrait of our beloved Great Leader’) - Anti-foreignism (‘Why do you have to drink foreign beverage? Why do you have to eat foreign food?)

Suggested Answer

The characteristic of the Red Guards is anti-foreign. From Source E, the Red Guard saw “coffee in the cup”, “a jar of jam with its label in English” and “foreign books“ in the author’s house. The Red Guard criticized, “why are you so foreign altogether”, judging the author “the worst of all, the most reactionary of all”. The Red Guard even questioned the author “are you a Chinese or are you a foreigner? ”. It implied that the Red Guard showed discontent toward the foreign lifestyle of the author, and even put him under fire. The characteristic of the Red Guards is anti-foreign.

(b) What can you conclude from Source F about the Shenzhen government’s attitude towards the entry of McDonald’s into China? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most of the candidates made good use of the Source to prove that the Shenzhen government welcomed the opening of China’s first McDonald’s in the city. However, some weak answers cited the excitement of the Shenzhen people to prove the government’s attitude. This misuse of evidence scored low marks.

Marking Schemes

L1 Able to conclude the view, marred by vague explanation and inability to use the Source effectively. [max. 1] L2 Able to conclude the view, with clear and valid explanation, and effective use of Source. [max. 3]


Attitude: e.g.

- Welcoming

Explanation: e.g.

- Shenzhen Special Zone Daily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The news report on McDonald’s was positive, reflecting a welcoming attitude on the part of the Shenzhen government.

Suggested Answer

The Shenzhen government showed positive attitude towards the entry of McDonald’s into China. From Source F, Shenzhen Special Zone Baily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The newspaper reports were published when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen opened. It pointed out Li Guangzhen, Shenzhen’s Deputy Mayor, attended McDonald’s opening ceremony and congratulated McDonald’s on behalf of the city government. It implied that the Shenzhen government welcomed the opening of McDonald in Shenzhen, showing a positive attitude.

(c) Do you agree that the Reform and Opening-up policy of China after 1978 transformed China? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F and using your own knowledge of China’s development up to 2000. (8 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. The question required candidates to compare China before and after the Reform and Opening-up Policy of 1978, in order to conclude whether China was transformed (fundamentally changed). Only the best candidates were able to provide a balanced treatment of both periods and focus on the key word ‘transform’. Many answers, however, displayed one or more of the following flaws: narrating facts about the two periods without making any comparisons; discussing the impact of the Reform and Opening-up Policy without considering developments before it; not distinguishing Sources from own knowledge.

Marking Schemes

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both the Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either the Sources or own knowledge; and/or Able to discuss transformation before and after Reform and Opening-up, but the aspect(s) discussed before and after that is not consistent. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both the Sources and own knowledge, with matching aspect(s) of transformation discussed before and after the Reform and Opening-up. [max. 8]


Transformed: e.g.

- The attitude towards foreign matters was hostile before the Reform and Opening-up, but it become more welcoming after that. (Source E and F) - Concerning means to achieve modernization, mass movements were employed before the Reform and Opening-up, whereas more practical, ‘scientific’ methods were used after that. Not transformed: e.g.

- Politically, the PPC was still a one-party state, with socialism as its guiding principle. (own knowledge) - Chinese people are still suspicious of foreign countries. ‘Foreign influence’ is still an accusation that can be seen from time to time. (own knowledge) - There was Western food in China before and after 1978. (Sources E and F)

Suggested Answer

To a large extent, the Reform and Opening-up transformed China. In terms of diplomacy, China transformed from anti-foreign to embracing the West after the Reform and Opening-up. From Source E, the Red Guard criticized the author, “why are you so foreign altogether”, and even questioned “are you a Chinese or are you a foreigner? ”. It implied that the Red Guard showed discontent toward the foreign lifestyle of the author. Before the Reform and Opening-up, China was anti-foreign. From Source E, the Red Guard criticized “in every room in this house there are imported things”, judging the author’s house “the worst of all, the most reactionary of all”. It implied that the Red Guards showed hatred toward the foreign-related items. Before the Reform and Opening-up, China was anti-foreign. From my own knowledge, in 1978 the Reform and Opening-up, cities were opened up stage-by-stage. For instance, in 1980, Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Xiamen were opened up as Special Economic Zones, which aimed to attract foreign trade. This increased exchange between China and the West, thus improving their relationships and transformed China. From Source F, when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen was opened in 1990, residents were “eager” to “visit and try out new things”. “Within the first three hours of its opening, the Shenzhen customers had already eaten up foods what McDonald’s had prepared for a week’s consumption”. It implied that citizens welcomed and adopted a positive attitude towards the foreign commodities. There was a transformation. From Source F, Shenzhen Special Zone Baily is an official newspaper run by the Shenzhen Party Committee of the Communist Party of China. The newspaper reports were published when China’s first McDonald’s restaurant in Shenzhen was opened. It pointed out Li Guangzhen, Shenzhen’s Deputy Mayor, attended McDonald’s opening ceremony. It implied that the PRC government welcomed foreign business after the Reform and Opening-up, which was a transformation. In terms of education, China transformed from neglecting professional knowledge to focusing on education after the Reform and Opening-up. From my own knowledge, before the Reform and Opening-up, China lacked focus on education. During Cultural Revolution, people were brainwashed with “the more you study, the more foolish you become”. 16,000,000 educated youth were sent to the rural area in the “up to the mountain, down to the countryside” movement. A generation of talents was lost. From my own knowledge, as the Reform and Opening-up started in 1978, education was regarded as one of the “four goals of modernization”. To build a strong and rich country, education was an essential element. In 1986, it issued the Compulsory Education Law. By reorganizing the educational institutions, the education level of citizens could be enhanced. There was a transformation. That said, to a small extent, the Reform and Opening-up did not transform China. In terms of politics, China kept the cult of personality even after the Reform and Opening-up. From Source E, during Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), not only did the Red Guards criticize the Western culture, but also blamed the author for not having “a single portrait of our beloved Great Leader”. It reflected that the Red Guards worshipped the great leader. There was a characteristic of cult of personality before the Reform and Opening-up. From my own knowledge, even China launched the Reform and Opening-up in 1978, Deng Xiaoping promised to keep the portrait of Mao Zedong on Tiananmen. Cult of personality did not disappear even after the Reform and Opening-up. It did not transform China. Thus, to a large extent, the Reform and Opening-up transformed China.