【2015】冷戰丨越過花園的圍牆



題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)


(a) 指出資料F所反映冷戰的兩項特徵。試以資料F的相關線索支持你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現未如理想。題目要求考生參考資料F的相關線索,指出冷戰的兩項特徵。只有表現最佳的考生能善用相關線索,支持其所指出的冷戰特徵。部分表現稍遜的考生僅能指出特徵,但未能從資料引錄相關線索。另一些考生則置資料於不顧,僅默寫有關冷戰的史實,這種答法不能獲得任何分數。

評分準則

* 一項特徵加上相關線索 [最多2分] 例︰ - 存在兩個陣營(花園分成兩個部分) - 兩個陣營均擴張其影響力,致使對方不安(樹枝越過花園圍牆,使兩個園丁均互相敵視)

參考答案

第一,資料F反映冷戰特徵是兩大陣營對疊。 資料F的漫畫中,一個花園被劃分為兩部分,兩部分均由園丁看守並細閱「修枝指南」,試圖修剪對面延伸過來的樹枝。由此可推斷,冷戰期間存在兩大陣營,而且彼此對疊,形成對立關係。 第二,資料F反映冷戰特徵是兩大陣營旨在擴張影響力,以捍衛己方陣營。 另外,兩個被劃分的花園的樹木均向外伸展,如代表「美國基地」的樹木中,「土耳其」、「西德」和「日本」的樹枝均向外發展;而另一端的花園亦如是,「古巴」的樹木亦向外展開,越過花園圍牆。由此可推斷,冷戰期間兩個陣營均對外宣傳其影響力,以捍衛其實力。

(b) 你認為冷戰期間美國與蘇聯哪一國對和平構成更大的威脅?參考資料F及G,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生指出並解釋美國與蘇聯哪一個對和平構成更大的威脅。不少考生能夠清楚表明其觀點,並作出恰當的比較,以解釋為何所選國家較另一個對和平構成更大的威脅;他們亦能參考相關資料,並利用自己所知,以支持其答案,答案亦能涵蓋冷戰的整個時期。部分稍遜的答案僅能選取一國,描述其對和平所構成的威脅,然而未能與另一個超級大國進行比較。這較答案得分偏低。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料或個人所知,及/ 或僅討論美國或蘇聯,或比較美國及蘇聯後未能清楚提出個人看法。 [最多4分] L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多7分] 美國︰ 例︰ - 「美國基地」的樹枝遠較蘇聯的長和粗大。(資料F) - 美國「隨時會使全人類毀滅於戰爭災難」。(資料G) - 美國積極介入歐洲政治,例如它支持成立北約。(個人所知) 蘇聯︰ 例︰ - 「古巴」這條樹枝伸入了美國的勢力範圍。(資料F) - 蘇聯對資本主義世界作出了強烈指控。(資料G) - 蘇聯支持成立華沙公約和中華人民共和國及朝鮮民主主義人民共和國(北韓)等共產政權。(個人所知)

參考答案

美國對和平構成更大的威脅。 第一,美國團結資本主義陣營對抗共產集團。參考資料F,漫畫家把「美國基地」描繪成既粗又壯的樹木,其枝幹更包括「西德」、「日本」、「土耳其」等,為花園另一端帶來大幅度樹蔭,反映美國勢力不斷擴張,甚至打破原來的勢力均衡,實對和平構成更大的威脅。 雖然蘇聯亦有組織共產集團對抗美國,但影響力較低。參考資料F,象徵蘇聯勢力而同屬共產陣營的「古巴」樹枝跨越圍牆,顯示蘇聯也擴張其影響力,對和平構成威脅。然而,其影響範圍僅只得短小的「古巴」樹枝,遠不及既粗又壯的「美國基地」樹幹,所以美國對和平構成更大的威脅。 第二,美國積極擴張意識形態。參考資料G,赫魯曉夫指「我們的敵人」是「帝國主義者」,一方面他抨擊美國為帝國主義國家,透過攫取他國資源建立政經霸權;另一方面,他認為美國存「挑起另一場戰爭的慾望」,將「隨著會使全人類毀滅於戰爭災難」,破壞國際秩序威脅和平。 雖然蘇聯也有擴張共產勢力,但影響力較低。就我所知,蘇聯於戰後赤化東歐國家,包括波蘭、捷克、東德等,扶植當地政權組織衛星國(1946),對和平構成威脅。然而,衛星國對蘇聯存有離心力,如捷克發生布拉格之春(1968),相反西歐國家於美國拉攏下愈見緊密,如共同組織歐洲共同體(1967),因此美國對和平構成更大的威脅。 第三,美國積極擴張軍備威脅和平。就我所知,一方面美國拉攏英國、法國等盟友成立北大西洋公約組織(1949),共同研發武器、交流情報和聯合演習等;另一方面,她更積極研發核子武器,如試爆原子彈(1945)和氫氣彈(1952),此等武器威力驚人,足以摧毀一個地區,顯示美國對和平構成嚴重的威脅。 雖然蘇聯也有研發軍備,但影響力較低。就我所知,蘇聯拉攏其衛星國盟友成立華沙公約組織(1955),進行一系列軍事合作,對世界和平帶來威脅。然而,比較美國為首的北大西洋公約組織,華沙公約組織規模簡單,成員國國力也較弱小,故其威脅程度遠不及美國。 總括而言,作為兩大陣營的領導,冷戰期間美、蘇對抗影響著世界政局,從意識形態、影響力、軍事擴張等範疇衡量後,美國比蘇聯對國際秩序構成更大的威脅。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify two characteristics of the Cold War as reflected in Source F. Support your answer with relevant clues from Source F. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was below expectations. This question required candidates to identify two characteristics of the Cold War with reference to relevant clues from Source F. Only the best candidates managed to make good use of the clues to support the characteristics of the Cold War they identified. Some weak candidates merely pointed out the characteristics without mentioning clues from the source. Still others ignored the source and have prepared answers about the Cold War’s characteristics. This kind of answer scored no marks.

Marking Scheme

* One characteristic plus relevant clue


e.g.

- Existence of two camps (the garden being divided into two parts) - Both camps extended their influence that annoyed one another (tree branches extending over the garden wall making the two gardeners looking offensive to one another)


Suggested Answer

First, source F shows that one feature of Cold War is the antagonism between the two camps. According to source F, a garden is divided into two parts, both parts are guarded by a gardener who is reading “Hints of Pruning”, they are also trying to remove branches extended from the opposite garden. From this it can be seen that there are two antagonistic camps in the Cold War, confronting one another. Second, source F implies that another feature of Cold War is that the two camps tended to expand their influence to secure their power. In source F, the branches in the two divided gardens are growing towards the opposite side, for instance, “Turkey”, “West Germany” and “Japan” branches are extending from the “US Bases” tree. It is similar on the other side of the garden, such that “Cuba” branches is also growing across the fence. It can therefore be seen that both camps in the Cold War emphasized on their influence in order to uphold their power.

(b) Which country – the USA or the USSR – do you think was more threatening to peace in the Cold War period? Explain your answer with reference to Sources F and G and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. This question required candidates to show and explain which country – the USA or the USSR – was more threatening to peace in the Cold War period. Many candidates gave their viewpoint clearly and make good comparisons to explain why the chosen country was more threatening to peace than the other; they also supported their answers by referring to the given sources and providing relevant details of their own. Covering the whole Cold War period. Some weak answers merely picked one country and narrated its threats to peace without comparing it with the other superpower. This kind of answer was awarded low marks.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Source or own knowledge only, and/or Merely discusses the USA or the USSR, or Fails to present a clear viewpoint after comparing the USA and the USSR. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 7] The USA: e.g.

- Branches from the ‘US bases’ were far longer and bigger than those of the USSR. (Source F) - The USA was ‘ready to doom all mankind to the catastrophe of war.’ (Source G) - The USA was active in European politics, for example, it was behind the formation of the NATO. (own knowledge) The USSR: e.g.

- the branch ‘Cuba’ extended into sphere of the USA. (Source F) - The USSR made serious accusations against the capitalist world. (Source G) - The USSR was behind the formation of the Warsaw Pact and communist regimes such as the PRC and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea). (own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

The USA was more threatening to peace in the Cold War period. First of all, the USA united the capitalist camp against the communist camp. According source F, the cartoonist portrayed the “US Bases” as a bold and strong tree with “West Germany”, “Japan” and “Turkey” branches, which shadow over another garden. The cartoon shows that the USA continued to expand their power, disrupting the established status quo, bringing more threats to peace. Although USSR did organize the communist camp against the USA, it had less influence than that of the USA. According to source F, the “Cuba” branch which symbolizes the communist camp grows across the fence to the other side of the garden, showing that the USSR also expanded its influence, causing harm to peace. However, its influence is only limited to the short “Cuba” branch, which is far weaker than the bold and strong “USA Bases” branches, implying that the USA was more threatening to peace in Cold War than the USSR. Second, the USA was aggressively extending the influence of its ideology. According to source G, Khrushchev described their “enemies” as “irrational imperialists”, he attacked the USA of being imperialist, who exploited resources from other countries to build up its economic hegemony. He also believes that the USA had “strong desires” to start another war, and “are ready to doom all mankind to the catastrophe of war”, disrupting international order and peace. Although USSR also did expand the influence of the communist camp, its was less influential than that of the USA. After WWII, Eastern European countries such as Poland, Czech and Eastern Germany became USSR’s satellite states in 1946, threatening peace. However, these satellite states occasionally resisted USSR and did not completely comply with USSR, for example Prague Spring took place in Czech in 1968 against USSR invasion. On the other hand, Western countries grew into closer relationship under US influence, the European Community was established in 1967, showing that the USA was a greater threat to peace. Third, the USA aggressively expanded their military, threatening world peace. On one hand, the USA set up The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with Britain and France in 1949, they introduced advanced weapons, shared intelligence and carried out military exercise. On the other hand, the USA actively developed atomic weapons, including atomic bombs in 1945 and hydrogen bombs in 1952, such powerful weapons were sufficient to cause regional destruction, bringing severe threats to peace. The USSR also expanded its military power, but with less influence than that of the USA. USSR set up the Warsaw Pact with its satellite states in 1955 for military cooperation, which also threatened world peace. The scale of Warsaw Pact was however smaller than that of NATO led by the USA, the members of Warsaw Pact was also less powerful than that of NATO in terms of military, causing less threats to peace than the USA. All in all, the USA and USSR , being the leaders of the two antagonistic camps of the Cold War, hugely influenced international order. After detailed analysis in terms of ideology, influence and military expansion, the USA caused greater threat to world peace than USSR.