* 一個特徵及一個有效的線索 例︰ - 國際化（在多個國家設有分店） - 業務多元化（百貨、飯店、保險等） - 帶領中國現代化發展（首創中國連鎖百貸商店）
第一個特徵是香港屬國際化地區。 從資料A先施有限公司的廣告分析，先施集團屬下的化妝品、保險、人壽等公司於國際設有分店，遍佈星架坡、暹羅等東南亞國家，顯示其業務不只限於中國境內地區，更足跡國際，實反映香港具國際化的特徵。 第二個特徵是香港公司業務多元化的特徵。 資料A廣告指先施有限公司不只於百貨業務，還包括化妝品及汽水製造、水火人壽保險、旅店等服務，顯示其業務繁多，為顧客提供一系列服務，實為業務多元化的特徵。
L1 論點含混，未能有效論及資料及相關史實。 [最多2分] L2 討論欠均衡，僅能有效運用資料或相關史實。 [最多4分] L3 討論有力且均衡，能有效運用資料及相關史實。 [最多7分] 例︰ - 香港在亞洲各大城市建立了商業網絡。（資料A） - 香港將多元化百貨公司經營策略推廣至中國各大城市。（資料B） - 在港華人為中國的革命提供各種支援。（個人所知）
經濟方面，香港為亞洲建立有系統的營商網絡。參考資料A，如先施有限公司分店不但足跡中國南京、上海等地，還遍及星架坡、暹羅等東南亞國家，築起亞洲的營商網絡，便利貿易往來。 經濟方面，香港成為亞洲的商業中心。資料A反映香港為亞洲提供多元化服務，如先施有限公司業務包括化妝品、保險、旅店等業務，商品涉獵不同範疇，為亞洲客戶提供更多選擇。 經濟方面，香港是亞洲的融資中心。資料B指「中國百貨公司」是由「海外華僑」透過「集資」的方式而成，先在「香港創立雛形」，「試驗成功」的話便「經由廣州」再推廣至「上海」等地，反映香港是中國資本家的跳板，讓他們在港融資發展業務，實為亞洲地區的商業中心，推動經濟發展。 政治方面，香港是亞洲革命的基地。資料B指先施創辦人馬應彪先生「輔佐孫中山先生進行革命」，不但「慷慨捐資」，而且更宣傳其革命理念，「為孫先生的革命鳴鑼開道」，顯示香港成為孫中山策劃、部處和宣揚革命思想之根據地。 社會方面，香港為亞洲帶來新思潮。資料B指先施創辦人馬應彪借「宣講的機會」向民眾「灌輸民主思想」，從而「倡導人人平等」等概念，反映香港也成為近代亞洲宣傳新思潮的地方，為亞洲各地傳入「男女平等」等新思想。 經濟方面，香港是亞洲的大型轉口港。就我所知，香港成為聯繫亞洲各國的主要橋樑，如二十世紀初香港經濟以轉口質易為主，藉著水深港闊的維多利亞港吸引各地資本家和商船前來，加強亞洲國家之間的溝通，實為一貢獻。 政治方面，香港成為亞洲革命根據地。就我所知，香港有助於中國革命的發展，如孫中山在香港成立同盟會分會，在港商討起義、籌募捐款和宣傳思想，成為二十世紀初中國革命運動的基地之一，推動中國現代化的進程。 文化方面，香港促進亞太地區文化交流。就我所知，香港推動亞洲的文化產業，由於香港為英國的殖民地，外來文化如西方古典音樂、歐西流行曲、荷里活及西歐電影都透過香港傳至亞洲地區，反映香港成為中西文化集中地，有助亞洲文化產業的發展。
(a) Identify two characteristics of modernization in Hong Kong in the early 20th century. Support your answer with clues from Source A. (4 marks)
Performance was average. The question required candidates to identify two characteristics of modernization in Hong Kong in the early 20th century. Some candidates could not identify the characteristics, and/ or could not use relevant clues from the Source to support their answer.
* One characteristic plus one valid clue [max. 2] e.g.
- international (branches in several countries) - diversified business (department store, hotel, insurance, etc) - leading in China’s modernization (first chain department store in China)
The first characteristic of modernization is that Hong Kong was an international region in the early 20th century. According to the advertisement in Source A, the businesses under the Sincere Company Limited such as cosmetics and flood, fire and life insurance had set up branches around the world, including Southeast Asian countries like Singapore and Siam. It indicates that the business of Sincere Company had expanded outside China and internationalized. Thus, Hong Kong was an international region in the early 20th century which is a characteristic of modernization. The second characteristic of modernization is the diversity of business of Hong Kong’s corporates. According to Source A, apart from being a chain department store, the Sincere Company Limited also introduced services such as cosmetics, aerated water production, flood, fire and life insurance as well as hotels. It reflects that Sincere Company Limited had set up numerous businesses, providing a series of services for customers. It shows the diversified business of Hong Kong’s corporates which is a characteristic of modernization.
(b) What contributions did Hong Kong make to the development of Asia in the early 20th century? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Performance was average. Candidates were required to discuss Hong Kong’s contributions to the development of Asia in the early 20th century with reference to Sources A and B and using their own knowledge. Answers tended to be general. Some answers mistakenly discussed the significance of Hong Kong’s development to itself, and thus were not awarded any marks. Candidates should have mentioned certain Asian countries or regions as examples and related Hong Kong’s contributions to their developments.
L1 Vague argument, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Unbalanced discussion with effective use of Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced discussion with effective use of both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 7]
- Hong Kong had built up a commercial network among major Asian cities. (Source A)
- Hong Kong introduced modern department store business methods to major Chinese cities. (Source B)
- Chinese in Hong Kong provided support for the Chinese revolution. (Own knowledge)
In economic aspect, Hong Kong had established a systematic business network for Asia. According to Source A, Sincere Company Limited had set up branches in Nanjing and Shanghai, China as well as Southeast Asian countries like Singapore and Siam. It reflects that Hong Kong had built a business network in Asia which facilitated trading. In economic aspect, Hong Kong had become the commercial hub in Asia. According to Source A, Sincere Company Limited provided diversified services for Asia, including cosmetics, insurance and hotel services. It indicates that Hong Kong provides services and commodities in different fields so that the Asians customers could have more choices. In economic aspect, Hong Kong had become the financial centre in Asia. According to Source B, the “Chinese department stores” were “funded by capital from overseas Chinese”, with their “prototype set up in Hong Kong”. As soon as “business proved successful”, branches would be set up in “Guangzhou” and eventually “Shanghai”. It shows that Hong Kong was the stepping stone for Chinese capitalists in where they could finance and develop their businesses. Thus, Hong Kong was the financial centre which promoted the economic development in Asia. In political aspect, Hong Kong was the base of Asian revolution. According to Source B, Ma Yingbiao, the founder of Sincere Company, had “assisted Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary activities by generously donating money”. He also “advocated Dr. Sun’s revolution by propagating democratic ideas”. It reflects that Hong Kong was the base in where Sun Yat-sen planned and promoted his revolutionary ideas. In social aspect, Hong Kong had brought new ideas to Asia. According to Source B, Ma Yingbiao, the founder of Sincere Company, made use of chances of preaching to “propagate democratic ideas and promote equality among people”. It reflects that new ideas like gender equality were promoted in Hong Kong and these new thoughts were spread to Asia. In economic aspect, Hong Kong was a large entrepot in Asia. According to my own knowledge, Hong Kong was the main bridge to connect the Asian countries. For example, in the early 20th century, Hong Kong economy was mainly based on entrepot trade. The deep-water Victoria harbor attracted capitalists and merchant ships from all over the world to enter Hong Kong and it strengthened the communication among Asian countries, which was a great contribution. In political aspect, Hong Kong was a revolutionary base in Asia. According to my own knowledge, Hong Kong facilitated the revolutionary development in China. For example, Sun Yat-sen founded a branch of Tongmenghui in Hong Kong to plan uprisings, raise funds as well as promoting his revolutionary ideas. Thus, Hong Kong had become one of the bases of the Chinese revolutionary movement in the early 20th century, promoting modernization of China. In cultural aspect, Hong Kong had promoted cultural exchange in the Asia-Pacific region. According to my own knowledge, since Hong Kong was a British colony, foreign cultures such as Western classical music, Western pop songs, Hollywood and European films were introduced to Asian regions through Hong Kong. It reflects that Hong Kong was a melting pot of cultures where East met West and it facilitated the development of the cultural industry in Asia.