【2013】日本丨《朝日新聞》



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 盟軍佔領時期麥克亞瑟在日本擔當了什麼角色?試引用資料C一項線索,支持你的答案。(2分)


考生表現

表現令人滿意。題目要求考生指出盟軍佔領期間麥克亞瑟在日本擔當了什麼角色。很多考生能按題目指示提出滿意的答案。然而,部分考生僅引錄線索,但未能概括出麥克亞瑟所擔當的角色。

評分準則

角色(1分)︰ 例︰ - 導師 線索(1分)︰ 例︰ - 「……正是麥帥教導我們民主與和平……」

參考答案

盟軍佔領時期麥克亞瑟在日本擔當了領導的角色。 資料C指自戰爭後,日本人與「麥克亞瑟將軍共同生活」,而麥帥更「教導」日本人「民主與和平」、「帶領了日本人走上康莊大道」,反映盟軍佔領期間麥克亞瑟擔當領導的角色,指揮日本戰後重建的工作。

(b) 在日本戰後重建一事上日本人自己的重要性而言,資料C及D是否持相同看法?試參考資料C及D,解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現令人滿意。題目要求考生討論該兩項資料是否就日本戰後重建一事上日本人自己的重要性事宜持相同的看法。很多考生能按題目指示作答,然而部分考生未能集中於「日本人自己的重要性」這個關鍵語,答案因而無關題旨。


評分準則

L1 解釋含混,未能有效運用兩項資料,或僅能有效運用一項。 [最多2分] L2 解釋清晰,能有效運用兩項資料。 [最多4分] 例︰ - 他們的看法有異。 - 資料C強調麥克亞瑟是父親、日本人是「子女」,而資料D則強調日本的成就是「日本人的技能」的成果。 ** 考生一般會認為兩項資料看法不同。然而,考生若持其他觀點而言之成理者,應酌量給分。

參考答案

雖然資料C和資料D均認為盟總政府對日本重建一事上存有重要性,但資料D卻認為日本人自身的重要性遠高於盟總政府,兩者看法實不相同。 資料C指日本人面對「前所未有的戰敗」和「全面崩潰的時候」,就是盟總政府麥克亞瑟將會「教導」日本「民主與和平」,並帶領本人「走上康莊大道」,協助日本戰後重建,走向強盛。可見,資料C認為日本人於重建一事上的重要性較低。 雖然資料D指出「盟軍的佔領在幾方面具有顯著重要性」,認為盟軍佔領期間的行動是存有重要性,不但有利於「戰後日本的某些轉變」,而且「就建立屹今仍存的日本制度的某些細節而言」,都是「重要的」,認為盟總政府對於戰後重建一事上功不可無。 然而,資料D卻認為日本「今天今天普遍愛好和平、通商世界、富裕、同一化、文化上以民眾為本的狀況」,日本如今的富強,乃是因為「日本人的技能和經濟結合世界整體狀況而成」,基於日本人的努力才塑成今日日本的強盛。可見,資料D認為日本人於重建一事上的重要性較高。 故此,對於日本戰後重建一事而言,資料C認為日本人的重要較低;而資料D認為日本人的重要性較高,兩者看法實不相同。

(c) 「第二次世界大戰後日本發展成為亞洲強國,主要是基於盟軍佔領時期所奠定的基礎。」試參考資料C及D,並就你所知,評論此說能否成立。(7分)


考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生評論第二次世界大戰後日本發展成為亞洲強國是否主要基於盟軍佔領時期所奠定的基礎。一般而言,考生表現不俗,但很多考生未能均衡引用資料及個人所知。部分考生忽略了關鍵詞「主要」,他側僅列舉促成日本成功的相關因素,但未能衡量其重要性。只有表現最佳的考生能夠就有關因素作出比較,衡量其重要性,並能均衡引用線索及個人所知。

評分準則

L1 論點含混,未能有效論及資料及相關史實,及/或對日本發展為亞洲強國的各項因素討論不足。 [最多2分] L2 討論片面,僅能有效運用資料相關史實,及/ 或片面討論日本發展為亞洲強國的各項因素。 [最多4分] L3 討論有力且均衡,能有效運用資料相關史實,及能合理均衡地討論日本發展為亞洲強國的各項因素。 [最多7分] 盟軍佔領時期所奠定的基礎︰ 例︰ - 麥帥「帶領了日本人走上康莊大道」。(資料C) - 盟軍的佔領「就加速戰後日本的某些轉變而言,它是重要的。」(資料D) - 佔領時期所推行的其他政策,如民主化和解除武備。(個人所知) 其他因素︰ 例︰ - 日本的技能和經濟是重要的。(資料D) - 武士道及日本民族性中其他元素有利該等發展。(個人所知) - 日本政府自己所推行的措施。(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言確能成立。 首先,資料C指「麥帥」是「佔領日本的最高領袖」,並「自戰爭結束以來」就和日本人「共同生活」,以決策者的身份協助日本戰後重建,終「看見子女成長而高興」,為日本成為強國奠下根基,實為盟軍佔領時期的功勞。 其次,資料C指日本面對「前所未有的戰敗」,而國土「處於全面崩潰」之時,有賴「麥帥」在日本建立「民主與和平」,方令日本「走上康莊大道」。這都反映日本於戰後成為亞洲強國,實源於盟軍佔領時所奠下的基礎。 此外,資料D指盟總時期對日本而言是「有顯著重要性」的,因其「加速戰後日本的某些轉變」,讓日本在戰後得以重建,發展為一大強國。故可見,盟總時期為日本帶來轉變,奠下富強的根基,實為重要。 就我所知,盟總時期頒布《昭和憲法》(1947),並舉行遠東戰爭法庭(1946),避免軍國主義再次興起的同時,也為日本建立和平穩定的局勢,有利其急速發展成亞洲強國,故有賴盟總時期的努力。 再者,盟總政府推行《土地改革法》(1948)和《禁止壟斷法》(1948)等經濟政策,一方面稈放近80%的土地予農民耕作,另一方面防止壟斷有助中小企業發展,使日本戰後經濟急速發展,一躍成為亞洲強國,盟總政府功不可沒。 同時,盟總政府重視教育發展,推行《教育基本法》(1947),強制兒童需要接受6年小學3年初中的9年強迫教育,讓日本人教育水平得到提升,人才輩出有利高科技研究的進行,讓日本踏上富強的道路,全因盟總時期的貢獻。 但仍有其他因素導致日本戰後成為亞洲強國,不過其重要性不及盟總政府因素。 首先,資料D指「日本人的技能和經濟結合世界整體狀況」這成「愛好和平」、「同一化」、「富裕」等狀況,反映日本人的民族特質也有助於日本於戰後成為亞洲強國,並非單靠盟總政府的貢獻。 然而,就因果關係而言,正因為盟總政府於戰後為日本奠下根基,日人的優良特質方得充分發揮,使日本急速發展成亞洲強國,顯示盟總政府的因素遠比日人的民族特質重要。 就我所知,冷戰形勢如韓戰(1950-1953)等為日本帶來龐大的出口市場,使日本工業急速發展,屬「軍需景氣」,埋下日本成為亞洲強國的伏線,這都反映國際形勢的重要性。 然而,冷戰形勢乃屬環境因素,決不會直接為日本帶來豐厚利益,而正因為盟總政府因時制宜,以日本作為物資供應的場所,才使日本發展順利,成為亞洲強國。因此,盟總政府的重要性遠比冷戰形勢重要。 可見,題目所言確能成立。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) What role did MacArthur play in Japan during the Occupation period? Support your answer with one clue from Source C. (2 marks)

Candidates’ performance

Performance was satisfactory. The question required candidates to identify the role of MacArthur in Japan during the Occupation period. Many candidates could follow the instruction and provide satisfactory answers. However, some candidates merely cited a clue but could not conclude the role played by MacArthur.

Marking scheme

Role [1 mark] : e.g.

- Teacher

Clue [1 mark] : e.g.

- ‘ … it was General MacArthur who taught us about democracy and peace …’

Suggested answer

MacArthur played the role as a leader during the Occupation period.  According to Source C, Japanese people “lived with General MacArthur” after the war. MacArthur also “taught” the Japanese “democracy and peace”, and “led the Japanese people down a bright road”. It reflects that MacArthur played the leading role during the Occupation period, leading Japan to conduct post-war reconstruction. 

(b) Do Sources C and D share the same view regarding the importance of the Japanese themselves in Japan’s post-war reconstruction? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D. (4 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was satisfactory. The question required candidates to discuss whether the two Sources shared the same view regarding the importance of the Japanese themselves in Japan’s post-war reconstruction. Whereas many candidates could follow the instruction and provided relevant answers, some did not focus on the key phrase ‘importance of the Japanese themselves’ and produced irrelevant answers.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Sources of effective use of one only. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanation, effective in using both Sources. [max. 4]


e.g.

- Their views were different - Source C emphasized MacArthur as a parent and the Japanese his ‘children’ whereas Source D emphasized Japan’s achievement a result of ‘Japanese skills’. ** Candidates in general will hold the view that the two Sources did not share the same view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are present logically.

Suggested answer

Both Sources C and D thought that the SCAP government was important in Japan’s post-war reconstruction, but Source D believed that Japanese themselves were more important than the SCAP government in Japan’s post-war reconstruction. Thus, Sources C and D do not share the same view. According to Source C, when Japanese people “faced an unprecedented defeat in war and when they were in a state of total collapse”, General MacArthur of the SCAP government “taught” Japanese people “democracy and peace” and also “led the Japanese people down a bright road”. He led Japan to conduct its post-war reconstruction and strengthened Japan. Therefore, Source C thought that the importance of the Japanese themselves in Japan’s post-war reconstruction was lower. In Source D, it indicated that “the Allied Occupation was vastly significant in some ways”, thinking that the SCAP government was important in “speeding up some of the changes that occurred in postwar Japan” and “establishing certain detailed aspects of the Japanese system which still linger on”. Therefore, the SCAP government indeed contributed a lot in Japan’s post-war reconstruction.  However, Source D thought that the “generally pacifistic, world trading, affluent, homogeneous, culturally mass-oriented Japan we find today” was “much more the result of Japanese skills and past experience together with general world conditions”. Therefore, the powerful and prosperous Japan nowadays was actually shaped by the efforts of Japanese people. Hence, Source D thought that the importance of Japanese themselves in Japan’s post-war reconstruction was higher. To conclude, Source C thought that the importance of Japanese themselves in Japan’s post-war reconstruction was lower while Source D believed that the importance of Japanese was higher. Thus, Sources C and D do not share the same view.

(c) ‘After the Second World War, Japan developed into an Asian power primarily because of the foundation laid down during the Occupation period.’ Comment on the validity of this statement with reference to Sources C and D, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was fair. The question required candidates to comment whether Japan’s development into an Asian power after the Second World War was primarily due to the foundation laid down during the Occupation period. Generally speaking, the candidates made good attempts to answer the question, but many failed to make balanced reference to the Sources and their own knowledge. Some ignored the key word ‘primarily’; they listed relevant factors that led to Japan’s success but did not weight their importance. Only the best candidates were able to compare the relevant factors, weight their importance, with balanced reference to the Source and their own knowledge.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague argument, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge, and/or limited discussion of factors leading to the Japan’s development into an Asian power. [max. 2] L2 Unbalanced discussion with effective use of Sources or own knowledge only, and/or one-side discussion of factors leading to the Japan’s development into an Asian power. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced discussion with effective use of both Sources and own knowledge, and reasonably balanced discussion of factors leading to the Japan’s development into an Asian power. [max. 7] Foundation laid down during the Occupation period: e.g.

- General MacArthur ‘led the Japanese people down a brighter road.’ (Source C) - The Occupation ‘was significant in speeding up some of the changes that occurred in postwar Japan.’ (Source D) - Other policies carried out in the Occupation Period, such as democratization and disarmament. (own knowledge) Other factors: e.g.

- Japanese skills and past experience were important. (Source D) - Bushido and other elements in the Japanese nationality favored such developments. (own knowledge) - The Japanese government took initiatives. (own knowledge)

Suggested answer

The statement was valid. Firstly, Source C pointed out that General MacArthur was “the highest leader of the Allied forces occupying Japan”. He also lived with Japanese people “since the end of the War”, assisting Japan in its post-war reconstruction as a leader. Finally, he was “like a father delighted to watch his children grow”. Therefore, the Occupation period laid down foundation for Japan becoming a strong power. Secondly, Source C indicated that “when the Japanese people faced an unprecedented defeat in war and when they were in a state of total collapse”, it was General MacArthur who taught Japanese people “democracy and peace” and “who gently led the Japanese people down a bright road”. It reflects that Japan’s emergence as an Asian power after the war was based on the foundation laid down during the Occupation period. Moreover, Source D showed that “the Allied Occupation was vastly significant in some ways” as it “sped up some of the changes that occurred in postwar Japan”, which had helped Japan’s post-war reconstruction and developed Japan into an Asian power. Therefore, the Occupation period had brought significant changes to Japan and laid down foundation for Japan to develop into an Asian power. According to my knowledge, during the Occupation period, the SCAP government promulgated the ‘Constitution of Japan’ (1947) as well as holding the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (1946) in order to avoid the rise of militarism again in Japan and establish a peaceful and stable situation for Japan. It facilitated the development of Japan and eventually Japan became an Asian power due to the efforts of the SCAP government. In addition, the SCAP government introduced several economic policies like the ‘Farm Land Reform Law’ (1948) and the ‘Deconcentration Law’ (1948). Under the efforts of the SCAP government, 80% of lands were released to the peasants. Monopoly of zaibatsu was suppressed which facilitated the development of the small and medium-sized enterprises. Japan’s economy was boomed after the war and Japan eventually became an Asian power due to the efforts of the SCAP government. Meanwhile, the SCAP government emphasized the development of education. It introduced the ‘Basic Education Law’ (1947), providing Japanese children with 9 years of compulsory education, including 6 years of primary education and 3 years of junior secondary education. It greatly enhanced the educational standard of the Japanese people and nurtured many talents in hi-tech research. Therefore, Japan became strong and prosperous due to the foundation laid down by the SCAP government.  However, there were also other factors that led Japan to become an Asian power after WWII. But they were less important than the SCAP government. Firstly, Source D indicated that the “generally pacifistic, world trading, affluent, homogeneous, culturally mass-oriented Japan we find today” was “much more the result of Japanese skills and past experience together with general world conditions”. It reflects that apart from the contribution of the SCAP government, the Japanese national traits also shaped Japan into an Asian power. However, in terms of causal relationship, it was because the foundation laid down by the SCAP government during the Occupation period, the excellent traits of Japanese people could be fully brought into play. Therefore, Japan developed into an Asian power mainly due to the contribution of the SCAP government, reflecting that the factor of the SCAP government was more important than the Japanese factor. According to my own knowledge, the situation of Cold War such as the Korean War (1950-1953) had brought a huge export market to Japan. The special procurement made by the US had facilitated the development of the Japanese industry, paving the way for Japan to become an Asian power. It reflects the importance of the international situation. However, the Cold War was only an external factor which could not bring enormous profits to Japan. It was because the SCAP government had done the right thing at the right time that it made Japan as a place for material supply. Therefore, Japan was able to develop smoothly and gradually became an Asian power. Hence, the SCAP government was more important than the Cold War. Therefore, the statement was valid.