【2013】冷戰丨民意調查



題目拆解


參考答案(中文版)

(a) 美國人在哪個十年代最敵視蘇聯?試參考資料G,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生指出美國人在哪個十年最敵視蘇聯。大部分考生能夠以1950年代作答,並比較這個十年的蘇聯受歡迎指數與其他十年的數據作為論據。

評分準則

十年代(1分)︰ - 1950年代 解釋︰ L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 答案清晰,能有效運用資料。[最多2分] 例︰ - 美國人歡迎蘇聯比率最低,不歡迎比率最高。

參考答案

美國人在1950年代最敵視蘇聯。 先從美國人對蘇聯表示歡迎方面討論。 資料G的數據指出美國人於1950年代對蘇聯表示歡迎不高於10%,顯示普遍美國人對蘇聯不甚好感,沒有興趣接觸或了解蘇聯,所以美國人在1950年代最敵視蘇聯。 相比其他年代,不論1960年代、1970年代還是1980年代,資料G的數據指出美國人均蘇聯表示歡迎度均高於10%,故比較下美國人於1950年代對蘇聯表示歡迎的數字為最低,故1950年代為美國人最敵視蘇聯的年代。 現從美國人對蘇聯表示不歡迎方面討論。 資料G的數據指出美國人於1950年代對蘇聯表示不歡迎度高於50%,顯示大多美國人對蘇聯反感,甚或討厭蘇聯的一切,所以美國人在1950年代最敵視蘇聯。 相比其他年代,不論1960年代、1970年代還是1980年代,資料G的數據指出美國人對蘇聯表示不歡迎度平均不高於50%,故比較下美國人於1950年代對蘇聯表示不歡迎的數字為其他年代較高,故1950年代為美國人最敵視蘇聯的年代。 因此,美國人在1950年代最敵視蘇聯。

(b) 你認為資料H中的漫畫可能於哪一年繪畫?試從資料H引用一項線索,解釋你的選擇。(3分)


考生表現

表現平均。題目要求考生參考資料H的一項線索,推斷出資料H中的漫畫可能畫於哪一年。考生應推斷出正確的年份,並按線索提出合理的解釋。然而,很多考生忽略了題目的指示「解釋你的選擇」,僅指出年份和提出線索,但沒有作出解釋。部分考生並不熟悉冷戰的歷史,他們以為冷戰終於1992年,及/ 或戈爾巴喬夫於1989年便出任蘇聯總統;若答案建基於以上錯誤史實,便不能得分。

評分準則

年份(1分)︰ 例︰ - 1989/ 1990/ 1991 線索(2分)︰ 例︰ - 「冷戰」怪獸被打倒。(冷戰結束於1989年) - 漫畫中的戈爾巴喬夫所穿上衣印有蘇聯的國徵。(蘇聯終於1991年)

參考答案

資料H的漫畫可能於1989年繪畫。 資料H的漫畫描繪美國總統喬治.布殊和蘇聯總統戈巴卓夫共同打倒象徵「冷戰」的怪獸,雙方友好並展現勝利,故由此可推斷漫畫繪畫於冷戰結束的年份,即1989年。

(c) 參考資料G及H,並就你所知,描述美蘇兩國於1953-1991年間不斷轉變的關係。(7分)


考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生參考資料G及H並就其個人所知,描述美蘇兩國於1953-1991年間不斷轉變的關係。部分考生曲解題旨,以為題目問及冷戰的普遍發展,因而沒有集中於美蘇兩國關係作答,因而失分。部分考生僅集中處理相關時段的一小部分。表現最遜色的考生討論了這個不斷轉變關係的原因,而非這個不斷轉變關係本身,只有表現最佳的考生能夠分階段描述兩個超級大國的關係,並予以恰當及均衡的論證。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多4分] L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多7分] 例︰ - 1953-1960年代,美蘇關係欠佳。(資料G)韓戰、華沙公約簽署事件令關係進一步緊張。(個人所知) - 1970年代,關係改善。(資料G)當時進行了多次裁軍談判。(個人所知) - 1979-1980年間,關係變得緊張。(資料G)原因是入侵阿富汗和星球大戰計劃等。(個人所知) - 1980年代,關係轉好。(資料G)戈爾巴喬夫進行改革。(個人所知)冷戰結束。(資料H)

參考答案

1953-1962年美國與蘇聯關係惡劣。 資料G反映1950年代美國人對蘇聯表示不歡迎的比率高於50%,而對蘇聯表示歡迎的比率更低至10%下,反映1950年代普遍美國人對蘇聯不甚好感,或對蘇聯持敵視的態度,故1950-1962年美國與蘇聯關係惡劣。 就我所知,1950-1953年美蘇雙方介入韓戰,分別支持南韓和北韓陣營,雙方持對立關係;至1955年蘇聯聯同其衛星國成立華沙公約組織,與美國為首的北大西洋公約組織對立(1949),彼此互相敵視;至1962年更爆發古巴導彈危機,面臨開戰的危機,故1950-1962美蘇關係惡劣。 然後,1962-1979年間美蘇雙方進行談判,關係得以改善,彼此緩和友好。 從資料G的數據反映,自1960年代起至1970年代,美國人對蘇聯表示歡迎的比率提升至接近50%;而美國人對蘇聯表示不歡迎的比率更下降至約30%,反映1962-1979年間美蘇關係得以改善,緩和友好地相處。 就我所知,美蘇於1962-1979年展開多次談判,如《全面禁止核試驗條約》(1963)、《不擴散核武器條約》(1968)、《赫爾辛基協定》(1975)等;雙方領導人更進行互相訪問(1972-1973),反映1962-1979年美蘇關係改善,踏入緩和友好期。 再者,1979-1985年間美蘇關係再度惡劣,互相敵視。 分析資料G的數據,1970年代末至1980年代中期,美國人對蘇聯表示歡迎的比率下降至約20%;而美國人對蘇聯表示不歡迎的比率更上升至接近50%,反映美蘇雙方關係再度惡劣,互相敵視。 就我所知,自蘇聯入侵阿富汗(1979),美國隨即於1980年拉攏資本主義陣營杯葛莫斯科奧運會,更於1983年提出「戰略防禦計劃」對抗蘇聯;而蘇聯亦於1984年杯葛美國洛杉磯奧運會,彼此抗衡對抗,互相敵視,顯示1979-1985年間美蘇關係再度惡劣,互相敵視。 最後,1985-1991年間美蘇關係出現緩和,彼此關係友好和諧。 資料H的漫畫描繪美國總統喬治.布殊和蘇聯總統戈巴卓夫共同打倒「冷戰」的怪獸,友好並愉快地展示勝利,喻意美蘇共同結束冷戰,和平友好地相處,所以1985-1991年間美蘇關係友好和諧。 就我所知,自戈巴卓夫上台(1985)便積極改善美蘇關係,如隨即與戴卓爾夫人和列根總統進行訪問(1985),更簽訂多項裁軍條約,如《歐洲常規裁減條約》(1990)和《中程導彈裁撤條約》(1988),和平共處,因此1985-1991年美蘇關係改善,友好和諧。 由此可見,以上就美蘇於1953-1991年間不斷轉變的關係作出描述。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) In which decade were the Americans most hostile towards the USSR? Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was good. This question required candidates to identify the decade in which the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR. Most candidates were able to identify the 1950s as the answer by comparing the favorability ratings in this decade with those in other decades.

Marking scheme

Decade [1 mark] : - 1950s Explanation: L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer and effective use of the Source. [max. 2]


e.g.

- Lowest favorable response and highest unfavorable response of the Americans towards the USSR

Suggested answer

The Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s. Firstly, let’s discuss the favourable response of the US towards the USSR. According to Source G, the favourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was not higher than 10% in the 1950s. It indicates that the Americans were not fond of the USSR and they had no interest in contacting or understanding the USSR. Therefore, the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s. In Source G, the data indicates that the favourable responses of the Americans towards the USSR were higher than 10% in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Compared with other decades, the favourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was the lowest in the 1950s. Thus, the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s. Now, let’s discuss the unfavourable response. According to Source G, the unfavourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was higher than 50% in the 1950s. It reflects that most of the Americans were discontented or even resentful of the USSR. Thus, the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s. In Source G, the data shows that the unfavourable responses of the Americans towards the USSR were not higher than 50% on average in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Compared with other decades, the unfavourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was the highest in the 1950s. Thus, the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s. To conclude, the Americans were most hostile towards the USSR in the 1950s.

(b) In which year do you think the cartoon in Source H could have been drawn? Explain your choice with reference to one clue from Source H. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was average. This question required candidates to refer to a clue from Source H to infer the year that cartoon in Source H could have been drawn. Candidates should infer the correct year and provide reasonable explanation based on the clue. However, many candidates ignored the task phrase ‘explain your choice’; they merely identified the year and provided a clue without making any explanation. Some candidates were not familiar with the history of the Cold War; they thought that it ended in 1992 and/or Gorbachev served as Soviet president before 1989. If explanations were based on wrong facts like this, no marks would be awarded.

Marking scheme

Year [1 mark] : e.g.

- 1989/ 1990/ 1991 Clues [2 marks] : e.g.

- The monster ‘Cold War’ was knocked out (The Cold War ended in 1989). - The cartoon shows Gorbachev wearing a shirt that bore the symbol of the USSR (the USSR ceased to exist in 1991)

Suggested answer

The cartoon could have been drawn in 1989. According to Source H, the cartoon described that the US President George Bush and the USSR President Gorbachev had defeated the monster symbolizing the “Cold War” together. They gained a victory and were friendly with each other. Therefore, it can be deduced that the cartoon could have been drawn in the year of the end of the Cold War which was 1989.

(c) With reference to Sources G and H and using your own knowledge, describe the changing relations between the USA and the USSR in the period 1953-1991. (7 marks)

Candidates’ performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to describe the changing relations between the USA and USSR in the period 1953-1991 with reference to Sources G and H and using their own knowledge. Some candidates distorted the question as one that asked for the general developments of the Cold War, without focusing specifically on the relations between the USA and the USSR, hence losing marks. Some focused on only a short portion of the period in question. The weakest candidates discussed causes of the changing relations rather than described the changing relations themselves. Only the best candidates could describe the relations between the two superpowers by stages, with appropriate and balanced substantiation. 

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Source or own knowledge only. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 7] e.g.

- In the period 1953-1960s, US-USSR relations were bad. (Source G) Events such as the Korean War and the signing of the Warsaw Pact added much tension to their relations (own knowledge) - In the 1970s, relations improved. (Source G) Several disarmament talks were made at that time. (own knowledge) - In the period 1979-1980, relations became tense. (Source G) It was caused by problems such as the invasion of Afghanistan and Star War Project. (own knowledge) - In the 1980s, the relation became better. (Source G) Gorbachev introduced reforms. (own knowledge) The Cold War ended. (Source H)

Suggested answer

The US and the USSR were hostile to each other during 1953-1962. According to Source G, the unfavourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was higher than 50% in the 1950s. Their favourable response towards the USSR was even lower than 10%, reflecting that the Americans were discontented or even resentful of the USSR. Thus, the US and the USSR were hostile to each other during 1953-1962. According to my knowledge, in 1950-1953, both the US and the USSR had involved in the Korean War, supporting South Korea and North Korea respectively. Hence, both countries were opposing to each other. In 1955, the USSR had established the Warsaw Pact Alliance with its satellites to counter the NATO (1949) leading by the US. Their relationship was thus deteriorated. In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis broke out which nearly provoked a war between the two countries. Therefore, the US and the USSR were hostile to each other during 1953-1962. Then, in 1962-1979, the relationship between the US and the USSR was improved as they made negotiation. Tension was eased and they were friendly towards each other. According to Source G, from the 1960s to the 1979s, the favourable response of the Americans towards the USSR was raised to nearly 50%. Meanwhile, the unfavourable response dropped to about 30%, showing that the relationship between the US and the USSR was improved. According to my knowledge, the US and the USSR had made negotiation for several times during 1962-1979, including the signing of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963), the Treaty of the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (1968) as well as the Helsinki Agreement (1975). The heads of the two countries also exchanged official visits (1972-1973), implying that the relationship between the US and the USSR was improved in 1962-1979 and both countries were friendly towards each other. However, during 1979-1985, the relationship of the US and the USSR was once again deteriorated and they were hostile to each other. According to Source G, in the late 1970s to the mid-1980s, the favourable response of the Americans towards the USSR dropped to about 20% while the unfavourable response rose to about 50%. It shows that the relationship of the US and the USSR was once again deteriorated. According to my knowledge, since the USSR invaded Afghanistan (1979), the US called the capitalist camp to boycott the 1980 Olympic Games held in Moscow. It even introduced the Strategic Defence Initiative in 1983 to counter the USSR. To confront against the US, the USSR also boycotted the Los Angeles Olympic Games in 1984. Both countries were hostile to each other and thus it indicates that the relationship of the US and the USSR was intense during 1979-1985. Lastly, the tension between the US and the USSR was eased and their relationship was friendly during 1985-1991. According to Source H, the cartoon described that the US President George Bush and the USSR President Gorbachev had defeated the monster symbolizing the “Cold War” together. They gained a victory and were friendly towards each other. It symbolized the end of Cold War by the US and USSR and the friendly relationship between the two countries. Therefore, the relationship between the US and the USSR was friendly during 1985-1991. According to my knowledge, since Gorbachev came to power in 1985, he actively improved the relationship between the US and the USSR. For example, he met Margaret Thatcher and Reagan in 1985 and also signed a series of arms limitation agreements, including the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (1990) as well as the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (1988) in order to achieve peaceful coexistence with the US. Thus, the relationship between the US and the USSR was improved and turned to friendly during 1985-1991.