【2013】二戰丨國際聯盟



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 從資料E引用兩項線索,以證明威爾遜正就國際聯盟的成立發表演說。(2分)


考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生從資料E引用兩項線索,以證明威爾遜正就國際聯盟的成立發表演說。很多考生能夠提出相關的線索。部分表現較遜的考生曲解題旨,嘗試證明國際聯盟成立於1919年,這並非題目所問。

評分準則

*每項有效線索一分 線索︰ 例︰ - 「(各國)永遠不會以武力侵略別國」。 - 各國「團結起來」作出「莊嚴的承認」。

參考答案

威爾遜於資料E指出這些國家「團結起來」並承諾「永遠不會以武力侵略別國」、「永遠不會損害鄰國的領土完整」和「永遠不會干預鄰國的政治獨立」,希望戰爭不會再次爆發,共同維持國際和平,切合國際聯盟成立宗旨,故可推斷威爾遜正就國際聯盟成立發表演說。 其次,威爾遜更指出各個國家日後「無論發生什麼事」,不論衝突紛爭的規模怎樣也好,也「都會將相互之間的一切分歧交予國際社會裁決」,交給國際裁決,以防衝突釀成戰爭爆發,正符合國際聯盟成立目的,故可推斷威爾遜正就國際聯盟成立發表演說。

(b) 就國際聯盟作為維和機構而言,漫畫家持什麼看法?試參考資料F,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生指出漫畫家就國際聯盟作為維和機構而言有何看法,並參考資料F解釋其答法。很多考生的答案令人滿意。表現較遜的考生誤以為「看法」即「態度」,因而失分。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 答案清晰,能有效運用資料。 [最多3分] 看法︰ 例︰ 聯合國未能有效維持和平。 線索︰ 例︰ 墨索里尼拒服婦人(國聯)的「安神蘇」,婦人合上雙眼,並沒有其他更好的做法。

參考答案

資料認為國際聯盟未能有效維持和平。 資料F把國際聯盟描繪成一個柔弱的婦人,軟弱無力似的,喻意國際聯盟欠缺實力,只能作表面上的維和行動和措施,故漫畫家認為國際聯盟未能有效維持和平。 另外,資料F把墨索里尼描述成頑皮的小孩,在婦女身上不斷拍打婦人,對婦女作出攻擊,喻意國際聯盟面對衝突挑戰不斷,維持和平岌岌可危,故漫畫家認為國際聯盟未能維持和平。 最後,代表國際聯盟的婦女面對墨索里尼小孩的拍打,只能一面無奈,並以餵食「安神藥」,試圖讓墨索里尼小孩冷戰,停止拍打,喻意國際聯盟維持和平的工作「治標不治本」,只能作象徵性的和平,故漫畫家認為國際聯盟未能維持和平。

(c) 資料E所反映威爾遜對國際聯盟的願景,在1930年代是否得以實現?試參考資料E及F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(6分)


考生表現

表現令人滿意。題目要求考生指出威爾遜對國際聯盟的願晾,並探討該等願景在1930年代是否得以實現。只有表現最佳的考生能夠指出威爾遜的願景,並引用資料及個人所知作答。部分考生能夠指出威爾遜的願景,但未能將有關線索聯繫到該等願景。部分表現較遜的考生以1930年代的史實為據,因而答非所問。表現再遜一籌的考生未能集中威爾遜的願景,取而代之的是僅僅解釋國際聯盟為何未能維和。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分] L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多6分] 威爾遜的願景(資料E)︰ 例︰ - 「建基於慎重商議的日子將指日可待」 - 「永遠不會干預鄰國的政治獨立」 - 「永遠不會損害鄰國的領土完整」 - 「永遠不會以武力侵略別國」 已實現︰ 例︰ - 國聯介入滿州事變。(個人所知) - 國聯於1932年召開日內瓦會議。(個人所知) 未能實現︰ 例︰ - 國聯未能停止1930年代意大利的軍事擴張。(資料F) - 另一場世界大戰於1939年爆發。(個人所知)

參考答案

威爾遜對國際聯盟的願景小程度上於1930年代實現。 先討論威爾遜對於國際聯盟的願景。 資料E指出威爾遜希望國際聯盟維持和平下,各國「永遠不會干預鄰國的政治獨立」、「永遠不會損害鄰國的領土完整」和「永遠不會以武力侵略別國」,各個國家的安全得到保障,維持勢局的穩定,希望國際聯盟能化解國際間的危機。 而同時,威爾遜於資料F的演說亦希望日後各個國家「無論發生什麼事」,不論是衝突糾紛還是分歧,希望她們「都會將相互之間的一切分歧交予國際社會裁」,以防衝突釀成戰爭的爆發,破壞國際間的穩定,希望國際聯盟能夠維持和平。 然而,威爾遜的願景大程度上未能於1930年代實現。 代表墨索里尼的頑劣小孩於資料H中不斷拍打代表國際聯盟的軟弱婦人,而面對小孩的拍打,婦人亦只好一臉無奈,並餵食「安神藥」,讓小孩短暫冷戰下來。從上述漫畫描述推斷,國際聯盟未能有效解決衝突,其只能作象徵的和平,所以威爾遜的願景並未能實現。 就我所知,法西斯意大利於1935-1936年入侵阿比西尼亞,雖然國際聯盟對意大利作出道德譴責和經濟制裁,但成效甚微。結果,國際聯盟於1936年取消經濟制裁,而意大利更取得阿比西尼亞全境,反映威爾遜希望各國「永遠不會侵略別國」的願景不能實現。 而且,納粹德國和軍國日本於1933年退出國際聯盟,日後兩國作出侵略或擴張行動時,國際聯盟亦未能有效加以阻止,如日本1937年全境入侵中國時,國聯還只在勸戒日本重返國聯再作商討。所以,威爾遜希望「各國將分歧交予國際社會裁決」的願景亦未能實現。 然而,威爾遜的願景小程度上在1930年代實現。 就我所知,國際聯盟成功於1932-1934年召開日內瓦會議,超過60個國家共同出席,商討裁軍等問題,以防戰爭再度爆發,實為威爾遜對國際聯盟能維持和平的願景。 其次,當日本發動「九一八事變」(1931)和「一二八事變」(1932),國際聯盟分別派遣維和部隊和對日本進行道德譴責,其後更簽訂《上海停戰協定》(1932),有助日本停止向中國發動侵略,維持地區和平,亦為威爾遜對國際聯盟的期盼。 總括而言,雖然國際聯盟曾於1930年代召開裁軍會議,試圖解決當前持續不斷的軍備競賽,加上她致力於處理國際衝突,符合威爾遜願景。然而,縱觀整個1930年代,不少大國包括德國、意大利、日本等相繼退出,加上英、法專注國內經濟,國際聯盟經已名存實亡,未能有效維持國際穩定。所以,威爾遜願景小程度實現。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify two clues from Source E to prove that Wilson was speaking on the formation of the League of Nations. (2 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was very good. This question required candidates to identify two clues from Source E prove that Wilson was speaking on the formation of the League of Nations. Many candidates were able to provide relevant clues. Some weaker candidates distorted the question by proving that the League of Nations was formed in 1919, which was irrelevant.

Marking scheme

*1 mark for 1 valid clue Clue: e.g.

- ‘(the countries) will never use their power against one another for aggression.’ - The countries ‘unite[d] for’ entering into a ‘solemn promise’.

Suggested answer

According to Source E, Wilson indicated that the countries united together and promised they would “never use their power against one another for aggression”, “never will impair the territorial integrity of a neighbor” and “never will interfere with the political independence of a neighbor”. He hoped that war would not break out again and the countries would cooperate to maintain peace, which met the purpose of establishment of the League of Nations. Thus, it could be deduced that Wilson was speaking on the formation of the League. Moreover, Wilson indicated that “no matter what happened”, the countries consented to “submit every matter of difference between them to the judgment of the international community” regardless of the scale of the conflicts. It could prevent conflicts among countries and thus another war would not break out, which met the purpose of establishment of the League of Nations. Thus, it could be deduced that Wilson was speaking on the formation of the League.

(b) What was the cartoonist’s view regarding the League of Nations as a peace-keeping institution? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was very good. This question required candidates to identify the view of the cartoonist regarding the League of Nations as a peace-keeping institution, and explain their answers with reference to Source F. Many candidates could tackle this question satisfactorily. The weaker candidates mistook ‘view’ as ‘attitude’, hence losing marks.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer and effective use of the Source. [max. 3] View: e.g.

- The League of Nations was not effective as a peace-keeping institution. Clues: e.g.

- Mussolini resisted taking the ‘calming medicine’ offered by the woman(League of Nations), who closed her eyes and did not have better alternatives.

Suggested answer

The cartoonist thought that the League of Nations failed to maintain peace effectively. According to Source F, the cartoonist depicted the League of Nations as a delicate woman, implying that the League lacked power and it could only make superficial peacekeeping measures. Thus, the cartoonist thought that the League failed to maintain peace effectively. Moreover, in Source F, Mussolini was described as a naughty kid who was tapping the woman. It reflects that the League of Nations faced challenges in resolving conflicts and maintaining peace. Thus, the cartoonist thought that the League failed to maintain peace effectively. Lastly, the woman representing the League of Nations showed her helplessness facing the slap by Mussolini. She attempted to calm Mussolini down by feeding him “calming medicine”, implying that the peacekeeping measures implemented by the League were just short-term palliatives. As the League could only make symbolic peace, the cartoonist thought that the League failed to maintain peace effectively.

(c) Were Wilson’s visions about the League of Nations as reflected in Source E realized in the 1930s? Explain your answer with reference to Sources E and F, and using your own knowledge.(6 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was satisfactory. This question required candidates to identify Wilson’s visions of the League of Nations and examine whether they were realized in the 1930s. only the best candidates were able to point out Wilson’s visions and support their answers with clues from Source F and their own knowledge. Some candidates could point out Wilson’s visions but failed to relate the clues they used to such visions. Some weak candidates supported their answers with reference to historical facts in the 1920s, which was irrelevant. The weaker candidates did not focus on Wilson’s visions and merely explained why the League of Nations could not keep peace.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 6] Wilson’s vision (Source E): e.g.

- ‘there will be a calm time of deliberate counsel.’ - ‘they never will interfere with the political independence of a neighbor’ - ‘they never will impair the territorial integrity.’ - ‘they will never use their power against one another for aggression.’ Realized: e.g.

- The League of Nations mediated in the Manchurian Incident. (own knowledge) - The League of Nations convened the Geneva Conference in 1932. (own knowledge) Not realized: e.g.

- The League of Nations failed to stop military expansion of Italy in the 1930s. (Source F) - Another world war broke out in 1939. (own knowledge)

Suggested answer

Wilson’s visions about the League of Nations were realized in the 1930s to a small extent. First and foremost, let’s discuss Wilson’s visions. According to Source E, Wilson hoped that the countries would “never use their power against one another for aggression”, “never will impair the territorial integrity of a neighbor” and “never will interfere with the political independence of a neighbor”. With the operation of the League of Nations, the national security of every country would be protected and the stability of the international community would be maintained. It reflects that Wilson hoped that the League would be able to resolve international crises. Meanwhile, in Source E, Wilson hoped that “no matter what happened”, the countries would “submit every matter of difference between them to the judgment of the international community” regardless of the scale of the conflicts. Therefore, conflicts and wars could be prevented and the stability of the international community would be maintained. It reflects that Wilson hoped the League would be able to maintain peace. However, Wilson’s visions were not realized in the 1930s to a large extent. According to Source F, the naughty kid representing Mussolini was tapping the woman representing the League of Nations. The woman showed her helplessness facing the slap by the kid and she attempted to calm the kid down by feeding him “calming medicine”. It could be deduced from the cartoon that the League did not resolve international conflicts effectively that it could only make symbolic peace. Therefore, Wilson’s visions were not realized. According to my knowledge, Fascist Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935-1936. Although the League of Nations had made moral condemnation and imposed economic sanctions against Italy, it was ineffective to curb Italy’s aggression. As a result, the League abolished the economic sanctions in 1936 and at the same time Italy successfully gained the whole Abyssinia. It reflects that Wilson’s vision of “never impair the territorial integrity of a neighbor” was not realized. In addition, Nazi Germany and Japan withdrew from the League in 1933. When these two countries made any expansion, the League could not stop them effectively. For example, when Japan invaded the whole Chinese territory in 1937, the League of Nations could only ask Japan to return to the League for further discussion. Therefore, Wilson’s vision of “submitting every matter of difference between them to the judgment of the international community” was not realized. However, Wilson’s visions were realized in 1930s to a small extent. According to my knowledge, the League of Nations successfully called the Geneva Conference in 1932-1934. Over 60 countries had attended the conference to discuss disarmament in order to prevent a world war. Therefore, Wilson’s vision of maintaining peace by the League was realized. Furthermore, when Japan launched the 918 Incident (1931) and the January 28 Incident (1932), the League of Nations had sent an investigation team to China and made moral condemnation against Japan. Later, the “Shanghai Armistice Agreement” was signed (1932) between Japan and China. It reflects that the League stopped the Japanese aggression against China and effectively maintained regional stability, which was one of the Wilson’s visions. To conclude, the League of Nations had called disarmament conferences in the 1930s, attempting to relieve armament race. In addition, the League had paid much effort in resolving international crises which met Wilson’s visions. However, throughout the entire 1930s, many powers such as Germany, Italy and Japan had withdrawn from the League. Meanwhile, Britain and France only focused on recovering their economies. Therefore, the League had insufficient strengthes in maintaining peace and eventually it was proved that the League could not keep peace effectively.