L1 答案含混，及/ 或未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分] L2 答案清楚，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分] 憂慮︰ 例︰ - 歐洲各國的獨特性將會在歐洲統合的浪潮中受到衝擊。 線索︰ 例︰ - 「若試圖遏抑民族身份並集中權力於歐洲共同體的中心，便會造成巨大的傷害……」 - 「我們當然希望看到一個更加統合的歐洲，但各國必須保持各自的傳統、國會權力，以及對自己的國家的民族自豪感。」
戴卓爾夫人擔心歐洲統合將會對歐洲各國的傳統特色帶來衝擊。 戴卓爾夫人於資料F指出「集中權力於歐洲共同體的中心」不但會「造成巨大的傷害」，而且會「遏抑民族身份」，最終會損害其「謀求的目標」，認為歐洲統合將會為民族身份帶來負面影響，而且得不到好處。 同時，戴卓爾夫人指「當蘇聯認識到成功有賴於權力分散」，權力分散有助蘇聯走向富強，而歐洲共同體的成員卻「希望朝向相反方向走」，把「權力集中於布魯塞爾」，將會有向失敗，得不其所。 最後，戴卓爾夫人於資料F認為發展「更加統合的歐洲」同時，或許會對各國「各自的傳統」、「國會權力」和「民族自豪感」帶來衝擊，歐洲一體化將會對各國的傳統特色和身份認同帶來挑戰，乃屬戴卓爾夫人的其中一項憂慮。
L1 答案含混，及/ 或未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分] L2 答案清楚，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分] 立場：
線索︰ 例︰ - 「……共同實踐主權，亦同時尊重多元。」 - 「沒有人會被要求放棄合理的愛國情操。」 **考生應該持反對立場。然而，倘考生持贊成立場，而言之成理，亦應酌量給分。
雅密．德洛爾不會有戴卓爾夫人的憂慮。 雅密．德洛爾於資料G指歐洲統合將會「讓我們共同實踐主權」，一方面確保各個國家的主權得以彰顯；而「亦同時尊重多元」，另一方面更會保持各國的傳統，以確保各國的獨特性，故不會出現戴卓爾夫人的憂慮。 其次，資料G指歐洲統合是要「將傳統深厚、個性鮮明、歷史悠久的國家聯合起來」，各個國家共同合作，以獲取更大利益。而統合過程更「沒有人被要求放棄合理的愛國情操」，各國的民族特色亦會得以延續承傳，故不會出現戴卓爾夫人的憂慮。
(c) 1988年以後歐洲的發展，能否印證你在題（A）所指出戴卓爾夫人的憂慮？試以1988-2000年間的相關史實，解釋你的答案。 （5分）
L1 答案含混，未能從個人所知援引充分/ 足夠的事例。 [最多2分] L2 答案清潔，能從個人所知援引充分的合理事例。 [最多5分] 立場：
事例︰ - 歐洲統合集中於經濟方面而非政治方面。 - 歐洲各國縱使廣泛使用歐羅，英國仍然使用英鎊。 - 歐洲各國仍然有獨立的外交政策。 **考生一般會持反對立場。然而，倘考生持贊成立場，而言之成理，亦應酌量給分。
1988年以後歐洲的發展未能印證戴卓爾夫人的憂慮。 就我所知，歐洲聯盟（1993）成立後共設20種官方語言，歐洲各國傳統方言特色沒有因歐洲聯盟的成立而受到打擊，反而各國方語傳統得到尊重和保持，所以戴卓爾夫人的憂慮未能被印證。 其次，歐洲各國於1995年簽訂《申根公約》，取消簽署國的關卡邊境管制，但條約並沒有強制性強迫歐洲國家簽署加入，各國可按其需要而自行決定加入與否，反映歐洲統合並沒有對各國傳統構成明顯威脅，故戴卓爾夫人的考慮未能實現。 再加上，《阿姆斯特丹條約》於1997年通過，條約設有「緊急煞車」的條款，列明當合作嚴重影響國家主權，參與國家加以阻撓，以防止其國家傳統民族特色受到衝擊，所以戴卓爾夫人的憂慮並不能證實。 最後，即使歐洲統合期間通過了《單一貨幣法案》，全面落實使用歐元（1991），表面上對各國傳統貨款帶來衝擊。然而，歐洲各國都有自由決定使用歐洲與否，就如英國沒有加入歐元區使用歐元，以保持其英鎊的特色，因此戴卓爾夫人的考慮並不會出現。
(a) What was Margaret Thatcher’s worry about the prospect of European integration? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates were able to point out Margaret Thatcher’s worry about the prospect of Europe, and explain their answers with clues from Source F. the weak candidates copied indiscriminately from the Source and could not identify Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
L1 Vague answer and/or ineffective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- The uniqueness of the European countries would be compromised in the wave of European unity. Clues: e.g.
- ‘To try to suppress nationhood and concentrate power at the center of European Community would be highly damaging …’ - ‘Certainly we want to see a united Europe in a way which preserves the different traditions, parliamentary powers and sense of national pride in one’s own country.’
Margaret Thatcher was worried that European integration would bring an assault to the traditions of each European country. According to Source F, Margaret Thatcher stated that “concentrating power at the center of the European Community” would not only be “highly damaging”, but also “suppress nationhood”. Eventually, concentrating power would “jeopardies the objectives we seek to achieve”. Margaret believed that European integration would bring negative impact on nationhood and could not bring any advantage to the European community. Meanwhile, Margaret Thatcher stated “the Soviet Union are learning the success depends on dispersing power”, showing that dispersing power brought the Soviet Union to become rich and power. However, some member states in the European Community “want to move in the opposite direction” to “require power to be centralized in Brussels”. It reflects that Margaret believed European integration would be a failure. Lastly, in Source F, Margaret Thatcher stated that “a more united Europe” would bring assault to “different traditions, parliamentary powers and sense of national pride in one’s own country”. It shows that European integration would bring challenges to the traditions as well as national identity of each European country and this is one of the worries of Margaret Thatcher.
(b) Do you think Jacques Delors would share Margaret Thatcher’s worry, as you identified it in (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (3 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates were able to demonstrate that in Source G Jacques Delors did not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry. Some candidates misread the Source and did not score any marks.
L1 Vague answer and/ or ineffective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3] Stance:
- ‘… joint exercise of sovereignty while respecting diversity.’ - ‘Nobody is being asked to renounce legitimate patriotism.’ ** Candidates should hold a negative view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry. According to Source G, Jacques Delors stated that European integration offered “a golden opportunity for the joint exercise of sovereignty while respecting diversity”, which means that European integration not only ensured the exercise of sovereignty of each country, but also helped maintain the traditions to keep the uniqueness of the countries. Therefore, Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry. Moreover, according to Source G, the purpose of European integration was to “unite old nations with strong traditions and personalities”. The European countries all united and cooperated with one another in order to gain more profits. Also, during the process of integration, “nobody is being asked to renounce legitimate patriotism”. It reflects that the national characteristics of the European countries would continue to be passed on. Therefore, Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
(c) Did developments in Europe after 1988 justify Margaret Thatcher’s worry, as you identified it in (a)? Explain your answer with relevant historical facts from the period 1988-2000. (5 marks)
Performance was poor. Many candidates demonstrated knowledge on European economic cooperation in the period in question, but they could not apply such knowledge to their answers; they merely narrated on the facts without relating to the key question whether they justified Margaret Thatcher’s worry or not. Only a handful of candidates succeeded in answering the question as instructed.
L1 Vague answer, and invalid/ inadequate examples from own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Clear answer, supported by adequate and valid example from own knowledge. [max. 5]
- European integration focused on the economic aspect rather than political one. - Britain still stuck to Pound Sterling despite the adoption of Euro in Europe. - European countries still had independent diplomacies. ** Candidates in general will hold a negative view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
Developments in Europe after 1988 did not justify Margaret Thatcher’s worry. According to my own knowledge, after the establishment of the European Union (1993), 20 official languages were used. The tradition dialects of the European countries did not fade away because of the establishment of EU. Instead, the dialects were respected and preserved. Thus, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. Moreover, the Schengen Agreement was signed among the European countries in 1995 in order to abolish the border control of the signatories. However, the treaty was not mandatory that the countries could decide whether to join or not according to their needs. It reflects that European integration was not threatening to the traditions of the European countries and thus Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. In addition, the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed in 1997. There was an “emergency braking” clause in the treaty that the signatories could obstruct the cooperation if their sovereignty was being undermined. The purpose of the clause was to protect the national characteristics and traditions of the European countries. Therefore, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. Lastly, the Single Currency Act was passed (1991) during the process of integration. Euro was fully implemented in Europe and it seemed to bring an assault to the traditional currencies of the European countries. In fact, the European countries had the freedom to determine whether to use Euro or not. For example, Britain kept using GBP instead of Euro. Therefore, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified.