L1 答案含混，及/ 或未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分]
L2 答案清楚，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分]
L1 答案含混，及/ 或未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分] L2 答案清楚，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分] 立場：
(c) 1988年以後歐洲的發展，能否印證你在題（A）所指出戴卓爾夫人的憂慮？試以1988-2000年間的相關史實，解釋你的答案。 （5分）
L1 答案含混，未能從個人所知援引充分/ 足夠的事例。 [最多2分] L2 答案清潔，能從個人所知援引充分的合理事例。 [最多5分] 立場：
(a) What was Margaret Thatcher’s worry about the prospect of European integration? Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates were able to point out Margaret Thatcher’s worry about the prospect of Europe, and explain their answers with clues from Source F. the weak candidates copied indiscriminately from the Source and could not identify Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
L1 Vague answer and/or ineffective explanation. [max. 1]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- The uniqueness of the European countries would be compromised in the wave of European unity. Clues: e.g.
- ‘To try to suppress nationhood and concentrate power at the center of European Community would be highly damaging …’
- ‘Certainly we want to see a united Europe in a way which preserves the different traditions, parliamentary powers and sense of national pride in one’s own country.’
Margaret Thatcher was worried that European integration would bring an assault to the traditions of each European country.
According to Source F, Margaret Thatcher stated that “concentrating power at the center of the European Community” would not only be “highly damaging”, but also “suppress nationhood”. Eventually, concentrating power would “jeopardies the objectives we seek to achieve”. Margaret believed that European integration would bring negative impact on nationhood and could not bring any advantage to the European community.
Meanwhile, Margaret Thatcher stated “the Soviet Union are learning the success depends on dispersing power”, showing that dispersing power brought the Soviet Union to become rich and power. However, some member states in the European Community “want to move in the opposite direction” to “require power to be centralized in Brussels”. It reflects that Margaret believed European integration would be a failure.
Lastly, in Source F, Margaret Thatcher stated that “a more united Europe” would bring assault to “different traditions, parliamentary powers and sense of national pride in one’s own country”. It shows that European integration would bring challenges to the traditions as well as national identity of each European country and this is one of the worries of Margaret Thatcher.
(b) Do you think Jacques Delors would share Margaret Thatcher’s worry, as you identified it in (a)? Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (3 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates were able to demonstrate that in Source G Jacques Delors did not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry. Some candidates misread the Source and did not score any marks.
L1 Vague answer and/ or ineffective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3] Stance:
- ‘… joint exercise of sovereignty while respecting diversity.’ - ‘Nobody is being asked to renounce legitimate patriotism.’ ** Candidates should hold a negative view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
According to Source G, Jacques Delors stated that European integration offered “a golden opportunity for the joint exercise of sovereignty while respecting diversity”, which means that European integration not only ensured the exercise of sovereignty of each country, but also helped maintain the traditions to keep the uniqueness of the countries. Therefore, Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
Moreover, according to Source G, the purpose of European integration was to “unite old nations with strong traditions and personalities”. The European countries all united and cooperated with one another in order to gain more profits. Also, during the process of integration, “nobody is being asked to renounce legitimate patriotism”. It reflects that the national characteristics of the European countries would continue to be passed on. Therefore, Jacques Delors would not share Margaret Thatcher’s worry.
(c) Did developments in Europe after 1988 justify Margaret Thatcher’s worry, as you identified it in (a)? Explain your answer with relevant historical facts from the period 1988-2000. (5 marks)
Performance was poor. Many candidates demonstrated knowledge on European economic cooperation in the period in question, but they could not apply such knowledge to their answers; they merely narrated on the facts without relating to the key question whether they justified Margaret Thatcher’s worry or not. Only a handful of candidates succeeded in answering the question as instructed.
L1 Vague answer, and invalid/ inadequate examples from own knowledge. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer, supported by adequate and valid example from own knowledge. [max. 5]
- European integration focused on the economic aspect rather than political one.
- Britain still stuck to Pound Sterling despite the adoption of Euro in Europe.
- European countries still had independent diplomacies.
** Candidates in general will hold a negative view. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
Developments in Europe after 1988 did not justify Margaret Thatcher’s worry. According to my own knowledge, after the establishment of the European Union (1993), 20 official languages were used. The tradition dialects of the European countries did not fade away because of the establishment of EU. Instead, the dialects were respected and preserved. Thus, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. Moreover, the Schengen Agreement was signed among the European countries in 1995 in order to abolish the border control of the signatories. However, the treaty was not mandatory that the countries could decide whether to join or not according to their needs. It reflects that European integration was not threatening to the traditions of the European countries and thus Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. In addition, the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed in 1997. There was an “emergency braking” clause in the treaty that the signatories could obstruct the cooperation if their sovereignty was being undermined. The purpose of the clause was to protect the national characteristics and traditions of the European countries. Therefore, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified. Lastly, the Single Currency Act was passed (1991) during the process of integration. Euro was fully implemented in Europe and it seemed to bring an assault to the traditional currencies of the European countries. In fact, the European countries had the freedom to determine whether to use Euro or not. For example, Britain kept using GBP instead of Euro. Therefore, Margaret Thatcher’s worry was not justified.