L1 能描述有關形勢，但未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分]
L1 答案含混，及/ 或史實未能涵蓋1908-1913年間的部分時段。 [最多2分] L2 答案清晰，史實能涵蓋1908-1913年間的發展，解釋亦清晰。 [最多4分] 例︰ -奧地利吞併波黑兩省，在巴爾幹製造了一場危機。 - 1912-1913年間，兩次巴爾幹戰爭令列強作好作戰的準備。 * 一般考生會認為1908-1913年間巴爾幹地區的形勢嚴峻。倘若考生持其他觀點，只要言之成理，亦應酌量給分。
L1 答案含混，未能有效參考資料及個人所知，及/ 或涵蓋相關時段不足。 [最多1分]
L2 僅參考資料或使用個人所知，及/ 或涵蓋相關時段的一部分 。 [最多3分]
L3 能參考資料及使用個人所知，並能涵蓋整個相關時段。 [最多6分]
(a)(i) According to the cartoonist, was the condition in the Balkans serious? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (3 marks)
Performance was good. Many candidates were able to show that the conditions in the Balkans were serious. They could also substantiate their answer with reference to the Source.
L1 Able to qualify the condition without any effective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Able to qualify the condition with effective explanation with reference to Source D. [max. 3]
Condition in the Balkans: e.g.
- The condition in the Balkans was serious.
- Despite the power’s efforts, the condition in the Balkans (as symbolized by the pot) was still exploding.
The situation in the Balkans was serious.
According to source D, the caption of the cartoon is “The Boiling Point”, meaning that the situation in the Balkans reached a critical point and was on the brink of a war, hence the situation in the Balkans was serious.
Apart from that, the cartoonist portrays the “Balkan troubles” as a pot that is about to spill, smoke is emitted from the pot, the situation is critical, hence it can be deduced that the cartoonist believes that the situation in the Balkans was serious.
According to source D, although there are five men symbolizing the five great powers who are attempting to cover the pot, the pot was still about to boil and spill, showing the intense situation.
(a)(ii) Was the Balkans in the period 1908-1913 in the condition you identified in (a)(i)? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
Performance was poor. Although many candidates could state their viewpoint in the answers, they failed to present relevant examples that covered the period 1908-1913. Some answer mentioned the Sarajevo Assassination (1914) and the Yugoslav Civil War (1990s), which were irrelevant to the question.
L1 Vague answer, and/or the facts can only cover part of the period 1908-1913. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer, and the facts can cover the period 1908-1913 with clear explanation. [max. 4]
- The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria had created a crisis in the Balkans.
- The two Balkan wars in 1912-1913 made the powers ready to fight a war.
* Candidates in general will hold the view that the Balkans in the period 1908-1913 serious. However, marks may be awarded to answer that reflect other views and are presented logically.
The situation of the Balkans from 1908 to 1913 was critical.
According to my own knowledge, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which led to discontent from Slavic Serbia and Russia, the relationship between them was poor, hence the situation was critical.
Apart from that, the small nations in the Balkans set up an alliance and launched attack on the Ottoman Empire, which was also known as the First Balkan War, the situation in the Balkans was intense and serious.
Finally, territorial disputes emerged among Balkan states in 1913 which eventually led to the Second Balkan War, the situation portrayed in source D was emerged.
(b) ‘The European powers failed to keep peace in the period 1905-1914.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Source D and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Performance was fair. While some candidates could state their viewpoint clearly with factual support from the Source and from their own knowledge, some merely provided an account of cause of the First World War without addressing the question.
L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Source and own knowledge, and/or inadequate coverage of the period in question. [max. 1]
L2 Merely refer to the Source or own knowledge, and/or cover only part of period in question. [max. 3]
L3 Refer to both the Source and own knowledge, and cover the whole period in question. [max. 6]
Peacekeeping efforts: e.g.
- During the first Balkan war of 1912, the powers cooperated to prevent the situation from exploding. (Source D) - To solve international disputes, the powers would reach agreements by signing treaties. (own knowledge) Problems behind the peacekeeping efforts: e.g.
- Despite the efforts of the powers, the Balkan situation was still exploding. (Source D)
- The powers were ready to go war, and the Sarajevo Assassination sparked off a general war. (own knowledge)
I agree with the statement to a large extent. According to source D, the situation in the Balkans was critical and reached a boiling point, smoke is emitted from the pot in the cartoon showing the critical situation, hence it can be seen that powers failed to maintain peace in the Balkans. Moreover, it is shown in source D that five men, symbolizing the five great powers of Europe are attempting to cover the pot to prevent boiled water from spilling out, yet such effort was ineffective, the pot could not be covered properly. This indicates that the powers failed to uphold peace in the conflicts of Balkans, peace was not maintained. According to my own knowledge, the Moroccan Crisis broke out in 1905, powers called for the Algeciras Conference to resolve conflicts, however, the conference could not resolve disputes effectively, it even led to the outbreak of the Second Moroccan Crisis in 1911, hence the powers failed to maintain peace. Furthermore, powers also failed to solve the problems of Balkan states, leading to the outbreak of the First Balkan War in 1912 to 1913. Although powers held the London Conference in 1913, attempting to resolve the conflict in the Balkans, the conference could not resolve the territorial dispute between Bulgaria and Serbia, which eventually led to the outbreak of the Second Balkan War (1913), showing that the powers failed to maintain peace. Finally, in the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, powers also failed to settle the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Germany even promised a “blank cheque” to show unlimited support to Austria-Hungary, while Russia became the first country to mobilize to support Serbia, WWI finally broke out, showing that the powers failed to uphold peace.