【2011】一戰丨巴爾幹半島



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a)(i) 根據漫畫家,巴爾幹地區的形勢是否嚴峻?參考資料D,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現良好。很多考生能夠指出巴爾幹地區的形勢嚴峻。他們亦能以資料作答。

評分參考

L1 能描述有關形勢,但未能作出有效解釋。 [最多1分] L2能描述有關形勢,亦能參考資料D作出有效解釋。 [最多3分]

巴爾幹地區的形勢︰ 例︰ - 巴爾幹地區的形勢是嚴峻的。 解釋︰ 例︰ - 就算列強作出努力,巴爾幹的形勢(圖中的大水煲所象徵)仍是一觸即發。

參考答案

巴爾幹地區的形勢是嚴峻的。 根據資料D,漫畫家以「沸點」為漫畫標題,喻意巴爾幹半島的局勢已經升溫至頂點,衝突一觸即發,所以巴爾幹地區的形勢實嚴峻的。 其次,漫畫家把「巴爾幹地區的紛爭」描繪成一個即將滾瀉的大熱鍋,而鍋爐烽煙四起,情況緊張,故可推斷漫畫家認為巴爾幹地區的形勢是嚴峻的。 資料D漫畫中,雖然有五個象徵大國的男子試圖壓抑水煲,可惜漫畫中的水煲仍快將滾瀉,可見其情況十分危急。

(a)(ii) 1908-1913年間的巴爾幹地區,是否處於你在題(a)(i)指出的形勢?就你所知,解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。雖然很多考生能在答案中陳明其看法,但他們未能以1908-1913年間的相關例子作答。部分答案提及了塞拉耶佛暗殺事件(1914)及南斯拉夫內戰(1990年代),完全無關題旨。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,及/ 或史實未能涵蓋1908-1913年間的部分時段。 [最多2分] L2 答案清晰,史實能涵蓋1908-1913年間的發展,解釋亦清晰。 [最多4分] 例︰ -奧地利吞併波黑兩省,在巴爾幹製造了一場危機。 - 1912-1913年間,兩次巴爾幹戰爭令列強作好作戰的準備。 * 一般考生會認為1908-1913年間巴爾幹地區的形勢嚴峻。倘若考生持其他觀點,只要言之成理,亦應酌量給分。

參考答案

1908-1913年間的巴爾幹地區屬處於嚴峻的形勢。 就我所知,1908年奧匈吞併了波斯尼亞及黑室哥維那兩地,導致斯拉夫民族的俄國及塞爾維亞不滿,兩方關係一度惡劣,實為嚴峻的形勢。 其次,於1912年間巴爾幹小國成立巴爾幹聯盟,向土耳其發動攻擊,是為第一次巴爾幹戰爭,使巴爾地區局勢緊張起來,故為嚴峻的形勢。 最後,1913年巴爾幹小國因領土問題再次觸發戰爭,招致第二次巴爾幹戰爭出現,導致資料D的緊張局勢出現。

(b) 「1905-1914年間,歐洲列強未能維持和平。」你是否同意?參考資料D,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(6分)


考生表現

表現尚可。部分考生能以資料及個人所知作答並陳明其看法,部分則僅能鋪陳第一次世界大戰的成因,但未能回應題旨。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效參考資料及個人所知,及/ 或涵蓋相關時段不足。 [最多1分] L2 僅參考資料或使用個人所知,及/ 或涵蓋相關時段的一部分 。 [最多3分] L3 能參考資料及使用個人所知,並能涵蓋整個相關時段。 [最多6分] 維和努力︰ 例︰ - 1912年第一次巴爾幹戰爭期間,列強進行合作,以避免形勢不可收拾。(資料D) - 出現國際糾紛後,列強會通過簽署條約達成協議。(個人所知) 維和努力背後的問題︰ 例︰ - 列強縱使作出努力,巴爾幹的形勢仍然一觸即發。(資料D) - 列強作好戰爭的準備,因此塞拉耶佛暗殺事件導致了全面戰爭的爆發。(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言確成成立。 參考資料D,巴爾幹地區的形勢經已十分嚴峻,達致沸點的地步,圖中更煙霧迷漫,情況緊急,可見列強未能有效維持巴爾幹地區的和平。 其次,資料D中五個象徵歐洲大國的男子試圖壓抑水煲,以免沸水從熱鍋中傾瀉下來,但成效不大,因水煲經已壓抑不住,故暗示列強未能維持巴爾地區的衝突,未能締造和平。 就我所知,1905年爆發摩洛哥危機後,列強司開阿爾及西勒會議以解決分歧,奈何會議未能有效解決當中矛盾,更導致第二次摩洛哥危機於1911年爆發,故列強未能維持和平。 再者,列強也未能解決巴爾幹小國自身的問題,導致第一次巴爾幹戰爭(1912-1913)出現。 即使列強於1913召開倫敦會議以解決當中巴爾幹地區的分歧,但會議卻未能解決保加利亞及室爾維亞的領土鬥爭,終使第二次巴爾幹戰爭出現(1913),可見列強未能維持和平。 最後,於1914年的塞拉耶佛危機中,列強更未能調停奧匈及塞爾維亞的衝突,更分別因德國提出「空白支票」支持奧匈及俄國成為第一個總動員國家支持塞爾維亞的關係,導致第一次世界大戰爆發,可見列強未能維持和平。


參考答案(英文版)

(a)(i) According to the cartoonist, was the condition in the Balkans serious? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (3 marks)


Candidate’s Performance

Performance was good. Many candidates were able to show that the conditions in the Balkans were serious. They could also substantiate their answer with reference to the Source.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to qualify the condition without any effective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Able to qualify the condition with effective explanation with reference to Source D. [max. 3]


Condition in the Balkans: e.g.

- The condition in the Balkans was serious.


Explanation: e.g.

- Despite the power’s efforts, the condition in the Balkans (as symbolized by the pot) was still exploding.

Suggested Answer

The situation in the Balkans was serious. According to source D, the caption of the cartoon is “The Boiling Point”, meaning that the situation in the Balkans reached a critical point and was on the brink of a war, hence the situation in the Balkans was serious. Apart from that, the cartoonist portrays the “Balkan troubles” as a pot that is about to spill, smoke is emitted from the pot, the situation is critical, hence it can be deduced that the cartoonist believes that the situation in the Balkans was serious. According to source D, although there are five men symbolizing the five great powers who are attempting to cover the pot, the pot was still about to boil and spill, showing the intense situation.

(a)(ii) Was the Balkans in the period 1908-1913 in the condition you identified in (a)(i)? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (4 marks)


Candidate’s Performance

Performance was poor. Although many candidates could state their viewpoint in the answers, they failed to present relevant examples that covered the period 1908-1913. Some answer mentioned the Sarajevo Assassination (1914) and the Yugoslav Civil War (1990s), which were irrelevant to the question.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, and/or the facts can only cover part of the period 1908-1913. [max. 2] L2 Clear answer, and the facts can cover the period 1908-1913 with clear explanation. [max. 4]


e.g.

- The annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria had created a crisis in the Balkans. - The two Balkan wars in 1912-1913 made the powers ready to fight a war. * Candidates in general will hold the view that the Balkans in the period 1908-1913 serious. However, marks may be awarded to answer that reflect other views and are presented logically.

Suggested Answer

The situation of the Balkans from 1908 to 1913 was critical. According to my own knowledge, Austria annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908, which led to discontent from Slavic Serbia and Russia, the relationship between them was poor, hence the situation was critical. Apart from that, the small nations in the Balkans set up an alliance and launched attack on the Ottoman Empire, which was also known as the First Balkan War, the situation in the Balkans was intense and serious. Finally, territorial disputes emerged among Balkan states in 1913 which eventually led to the Second Balkan War, the situation portrayed in source D was emerged.

(b) ‘The European powers failed to keep peace in the period 1905-1914.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Source D and using your own knowledge.  (6 marks)


Candidate’s Performance

Performance was fair. While some candidates could state their viewpoint clearly with factual support from the Source and from their own knowledge, some merely provided an account of cause of the First World War without addressing the question.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Source and own knowledge, and/or inadequate coverage of the period in question. [max. 1] L2 Merely refer to the Source or own knowledge, and/or cover only part of period in question. [max. 3] L3 Refer to both the Source and own knowledge, and cover the whole period in question. [max. 6]


Peacekeeping efforts: e.g.

- During the first Balkan war of 1912, the powers cooperated to prevent the situation from exploding. (Source D) - To solve international disputes, the powers would reach agreements by signing treaties. (own knowledge) Problems behind the peacekeeping efforts: e.g.

- Despite the efforts of the powers, the Balkan situation was still exploding. (Source D) - The powers were ready to go war, and the Sarajevo Assassination sparked off a general war. (own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

I agree with the statement to a large extent. According to source D, the situation in the Balkans was critical and reached a boiling point, smoke is emitted from the pot in the cartoon showing the critical situation, hence it can be seen that powers failed to maintain peace in the Balkans. Moreover, it is shown in source D that five men, symbolizing the five great powers of Europe are attempting to cover the pot to prevent boiled water from spilling out, yet such effort was ineffective, the pot could not be covered properly. This indicates that the powers failed to uphold peace in the conflicts of Balkans, peace was not maintained. According to my own knowledge, the Moroccan Crisis broke out in 1905, powers called for the Algeciras Conference to resolve conflicts, however, the conference could not resolve disputes effectively, it even led to the outbreak of the Second Moroccan Crisis in 1911, hence the powers failed to maintain peace. Furthermore, powers also failed to solve the problems of Balkan states, leading to the outbreak of the First Balkan War in 1912 to 1913. Although powers held the London Conference in 1913, attempting to resolve the conflict in the Balkans, the conference could not resolve the territorial dispute between Bulgaria and Serbia, which eventually led to the outbreak of the Second Balkan War (1913), showing that the powers failed to maintain peace. Finally, in the Sarajevo Crisis in 1914, powers also failed to settle the dispute between Austria-Hungary and Serbia, Germany even promised a “blank cheque” to show unlimited support to Austria-Hungary, while Russia became the first country to mobilize to support Serbia, WWI finally broke out, showing that the powers failed to uphold peace.

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