【2009】香港丨中日文化交流



題目拆解


參考答案(中文版)


(a) 1960年代至1990年代期間,日本流行文化在香港是否日漸盛行?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現尚可。很多考生能夠指出日本流行文化在香港日漸盛行,但不少考生未能從資料A列舉足夠線索支持其答案。只有表現最佳的考生能掌握關鍵詞「日漸盛行」,並描述1960年代至1990年代不斷轉變的趨勢。

評分準則

L1 能引用相關線索,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能引用相關線索,並作恰當解釋。 [最多3分]

例:

- 1960年代,香港人較喜愛美國漫畫(如米奇老鼠)。然而,日本漫畫(如幪面超人)於1970年代開始影響香港市場,於1980年代及1990年代在香港變得非常流行。

參考答案

日本流行文化在香港日漸盛行。 參考資料A,香港於1960年代流行美國文化,包括「大力水手」、「米奇老鼠」及「史諾比」等卡通人物均來自美國,而且深受港人愛戴,顯示1960年代時美國文化深植香港社會。 不過,情況到1970年代出現轉變。儘管1970年代時港人依然喜愛美國卡通,包括「聰明笨伯」等,但與此同時日本文化流行於香港,包括「多啦A夢(叮噹)」及「幪面超人」等,反映日本文化逐步受港人重視。 更甚,日本文化於1980至1990年代成為香港主流,包括「機動戰士」、「足夠小將」、「美少女戰士」等,成為當時兒童主要娛樂的卡通人物,綜合分析後,日本文化確實於香港日漸盛行。

(b) 資料B的作者在什麼程度上受日本文化影響?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。大部分考生僅能指出資料B的作者受到日本文化影響。然而,很多考生沒有注意到資料提及作者亦受到其他文化的影響;考生若不提及這一點,便不能有效推定作者在什麼程度上受到日本文化的影響。

評分準則

L1 僅論及日本非日本文化。 [最多2分] L2 能夠論及日本非日本文化;能清楚寫明觀點(例:「大程度」)。 [最多4分]

日本文化 例:

- 《叮噹》貼紙、《幪面超人》模型。 - 《IQ博士》漫畫。 - 《機動戰士》模型。 - 任天堂電視遊戲。 - 學習日語,並兩次前往日本旅遊。

非日本文化 例:

- 美國《蜘蛛俠》漫畫。 - 美國《星球大戰》模型。

參考答案

資料B的作者大程度上受日本文化影響。 雖然,作者指出自己中學時期愛好美國文化,包括觀看《蜘蛛俠》漫畫,而且收藏「美國星球大戰的模型」,顯示作者不單止受日本文化所影響,反對題目所指。 然而,作者指出自己兒時購買「叮噹(現稱多啦A夢)貼紙」和「幪面超人模型」玩樂,而上述兩個卡通人物均屬於日本卡通文化,反映作者自小就深受日本文化影響。 而且,隨著作者年紀漸長,他選擇閱讀《IQ博士》和鑽研「日本機動戰士」模型,這些都是日本流行文化,自然顯示作深受日本文化所影響。 更甚,當作者入讀大學後,他愛跟「朋友們玩任天堂遊戲」,而且於畢業後希望「進一步認識日本文化」,分別「先學日語」,再「兩次前往日本旅遊」,種種跡象顯示作者愛好日本文化,題目當然大程度成立。

(c) 「20世紀下半葉的香港文化,顯示中﹑外文化的共存。」就說明這一說法而言,資料A及B有哪些局限?試就你所知,解釋你的答案。 (5分)


考生表現

表現尚可。題目問及資料A及B在說明「20世紀下半葉的香港文化,顯示中、外文化的共存」這說法上的局限。大部分考生僅能集中於中國或外國的文化;表現較差的學生僅能指出諸如語言和藝劓等「方面」,但未能提供詳情。只有表現最佳的考生討論兩項資料如何未能反映20世紀下半葉中、外文化在香港的「共存」。

評分準則

L1 僅論及中國文化及其他外國的文化。 [最多3分] L2 能同時論及中國文化其他外國的文化。 [最多5分] 例:

- 傳統中國文化(例:社會價值及習俗、節日、戲曲)。 - 現代/ 當代中國文化(例:革命文化、學習普通話)。 - 其他外國文化(例:各國或地區的飲食、宗教、娛樂、時尚等)。

參考答案

就我所知,資料未能反映飲食文化。20世紀下半葉期間,香港流行傳統中式美食,包括「粵菜」、「京菜」、「川菜」等,而且象徵西式快餐文化的連鎖店,如麥當勞、肯德基等相繼湧現,反映香港的確是個中、外文化共存的地方。 服飾方面,港人嫁娶時早上會穿著中式裙褂,向長輩敬茶;晚上會改穿婚紗,舉辦婚宴跟親朋戚友慶祝,的確是個中、外文化共存的地方。 建築方面,香港擁有多個中式建築,包括車公廟、黃大仙祠供港人供奉;同時,港英政府建下不少西式建設,例如立法會大樓、鐘樓等具愛德華式風格,顯示香港是個中、外文化共存的地方。 節日方面,香港慶祝多個國際性節日,中式的包括農曆新年、清明節等,港人不但會祝賀彼此,更會拜祭先人;而西式節日有聖誕節普天同慶、情人節愛侶相伴等,香港自然是個中、外文化共存的地方。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) Did Japanese popular culture increase in popularity in Hong Kong in the period 1960s to 1990s? Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. Many candidates were able to point out that Japanese popular culture became increasingly popular in Hong Kong, but quite a number of them failed to support their answer with enough clues from Source A. only the ablest candidates could grasp the key phrase ‘increasing popularity’ and portray a changing tread from the 1960s to the 1990s.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to cite relevant clues without due explanation. [max. 1] L2 Able to cite relevant clues with due explanation. [max. 3]


e.g.

- In the 1960s the Hong Kong people preferred American comics (such as Mickey Mouse). However, Japanese comics (such as Masked Rider) began to show some influence in the Hong Kong market in the 1970s, and in the 1980s and 1990s they became very popular in Hong Kong.

Suggested Answer

Japanese popular culture increased in popularity in Hong Kong.


According to source A, American culture was popular in 1960s, including cartoons from the US such as “Popeye the Sailor Man”, “Mickey Mouse” and “Snoopy”, Hong Kong people liked these cartoons showing that American culture was popular in Hong Kong society in the 60s. However, the situation changed in the 70s. Although Hong Kong people were still attracted to American cartoon including The Flintstones, Japanese popular culture started to rise in popularity in Hong Kong including the cartoon Doraemon and Masked Rider, reflecting that Japanese culture increased in importance. Moreover, Japanese culture became the mainstream from the 80s to 90s in Hong Kong, “Mobile Suit Gundam”, “Captain Tsubasa” and “Sailormoon” were the main cartoon characters of children’s entertainment. To conclude, Japanese culture did gain in popularity in Hong Kong.

(b) To what extent was the author of Source B influenced by Japanese culture? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was poor. Most candidates only managed to show that the author of Source B was under the influence of Japanese culture. However, many of them had not noted that the author was also exposed to other cultures as mentioned in the source; without mentioning this, the candidates could not effectively determine the extent to which the author was under the influence of Japanese culture.

Marking Scheme

L1 Merely refer to the Japanese or non-Japanese culture. [max. 2] L2 Refer to both Japanese and non-Japanese cultures; clearly state the viewpoint (e.g. ‘large extent’). [max. 4]


Japanese culture e.g.

Doraemonlabels, Masked Rider models. - Dr. Slump comics. - Mobile Suit Gundam models. - Nintendo TV games. - Learn Japanese and travel twice to Japan. Non-Japanese culture e.g.

- American Spiderman comics. - American Star Wars models.

Suggested Answer

The author of source B was influenced by Japanese culture to a large extent. The author states that he was attracted to American culture when he was in secondary school, including the cartoon “Spiderman”, he also collected “Star War Models”, implying that the author was not only influenced by Japanese culture. Nevertheless, the author points out that he bought “Doraemon” stickers and “Masked Rider Models” when he was small, the above cartoons belonged to Japanese cartoon culture, showing that author was deeply influenced by Japanese culture when he was small. Moreover, as the author grew up, he chose to read “Dr. Slump” and played “Japanese Mobile Suit Gundam”, all of which are Japanese popular culture, showing that he was influenced by it. Furthermore, when the author entered university, he played “Nintendo TV games” with his friends, he even wanted to “know more about Japanese culture” after graduation that he learnt Japanese and travelled to Japan twice. All of the above show that the author was attracted by Japanese culture to a large extent.

(c) ‘Hong Kong culture in the second half of the 20thcentury demonstrated the co-existence of Chinese and foreign cultures.’ What are the limitations of Sources A and B in illustrating this statement? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (5 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. The question asked about the limitations of Sources A and B in illustrating the statement that ‘Hong Kong culture in the second half of the 20thcentury demonstrated the co-existence of Chinese and foreign cultures.’ Most candidates could only focus on either Chinese or foreign cultures; weak candidates could only name aspects such as languages and the arts without providing details. Only the ablest candidates discussed how the two sources failed to reflect co-existenceof Chinese and foreign cultures in Hong Kong in the second half of the 20thcentury.

Marking Scheme

L1 Refer to merely Chinese cultures or other foreign cultures. [max. 3] L2 Refer to both Chinese and other foreign cultures. [max. 5]


e.g.

- Traditional Chinese cultures (e.g. social values and customs, festivals, operas). - Modern/ contemporary Chinese cultures (e.g. revolutionary culture, Putonghua learning) - Other foreign cultures (e.g. foods, religions, entertainments, fashions, etc. of various countries and regions).

Suggested Answer

According to my own knowledge, the sources failed to explain food culture in Hong Kong. In the second half of the 20thcentury, Chinese cuisines were popular in Hong Kong including “Canto dishes”, “Beijing dishes” and “Sichuan dishes”, meanwhile, western style fast food shops also prevailed in Hong Kong such as McDonald’s and KFC, reflecting that Hong Kong demonstrated the co-existence of Chinese and foreign food cultures. In terms of clothing, during wedding, the bride would wear Chinese wedding gown and serve tea to elder members of the family in daytime. At night, the bride would wear white western wedding gown and hold banquets to celebrate with friends and relatives. Hong Kong was indeed a place with both Chinese and foreign cultures. In term of architecture, there were plenty of Chinese style buildings in Hong Kong, such as the Che Kung Temple and Wong Tai Sin Temple for people to worship. Meanwhile, the colonial government also built western style architectures, including the Legislative Council and the Clock Tower which resembled Edward-style architecture. These show that Chinese and foreign cultures co-existed in Hong Kong. In terms of festivals, Hong Kong people celebrated festivals from all around the world, during Chinese New Year and Ching Ming Festival, Hong Kong people not only wish each other good luck, but also worship their ancestors. Western festivals such as Christmas and Valentine’s Day were also celebrated, Hong Kong was indeed a place where Chinese and foreign cultures co-existed.

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