方法： - 與政黨建立聯繫 線索： - 「但更有可能取得實效的則是政黨，它們與商界關係密切。」
L1 答案片面（僅運用資料或相關史實）或持「充分」觀點。 [最多4分] L2 能同時運用資料及相關史實；能清楚闡明觀點。 [最多7分]
- 日本在疹黨派主義、無綱無紀以及貪污腐敗。 - 政黨領袖沒有嘗試掌握恰當的技巧。 - 政黨領袖甚為保守。 個人所知 例：
- 日本沒有民主和憲政的傳統。 - 政黨政府與西方列強合作的政策被軍方視為積弱的標誌。 - 全球經濟大衰退及極權主義的興起，減低了民主的魅力。
資料未能充分反映政黨政治失敗的原因。 資料C指出政黨跟資本家互相勾結，如作者形容彼此「關係密切」，政治家致力於維護商人利益，結果中產階級影響力「達至任何政府均難漠視的地位」，顯示政治家貪污腐敗，未能以民為作首要考慮，終導致其失敗。 資料C指出中產階級崛興參與政治，如作者指他們「擔起直接的政治角色」，並通過「壓力團體的方式尋求影響政府的觀點和具體決定」，力求將力益最大化，結果國民利益受損，同時政治家未力改善民心而失去支持，使其失敗告終。 更甚，資料C指政黨「無綱無紀」而且「貪污腐敗」，政黨領袖亦欠缺個人特色，「沒有嘗試去掌握恰當的技巧」來爭取民心，使之「政黨並未能取得廣泛的民眾支持」，招致其於1930年代失敗。 然而，部分原因資料沒有提及。 就我所知，政黨政治家未能有效處理經濟危機，包括關東大地震（1923）、銀行危機（1927）和經濟大衰退（1929）等，更甚造成超過300萬人失業，民怨沸騰，讓他們不得民心失敗告終。 而且，政黨政治家形象軟弱，面對列強欺壓選擇妥協，如參與華盛頓會議（1921－1922）和倫敦海軍會議（1930），同意日本交還中國山東利益並限制海軍擴展，有損日本利益和形象，日人對此大感失望，失去選民支持的政黨亦於1930年代失敗。 最後，政黨政治家貪污腐敗，自1918年原敬擔任首相開始，至1932年換閣高達11次，換言之平均每個首相任期不多於3年，更甚他們與財閥勾結，如1924年違反選舉法個案就高達15000宗，政治家形象負面難以吸引民眾支持，最終於1930年代失敗告吹。
(a) According to Source C, what was the impact of economic expansion on Japanese society? (2 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to point out the impact of economic expansion of Japanese society.
- The industrial and commercial middle class grew.
* One mark only for direct citation without paraphrasing
Economic expansion led to the increase of size of the middle class. According to source C, it is stated that “one result of the expansion of the economy” was that the number of capitalists increased, hence the “industrial and commercial middle class” expanded, all of which were the impacts of economic expansion.
(b) Besides acting as pressure groups, what means did the Japanese middle class adopt to protect its interests? Cite one clue from Source C to support your answer. (1+1 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to refer to the Source in pointing out that the Japanese middle class linked itself to the political parties in order to protect its interests. However, a few candidates merely copied from the Source and misread the Source as asserting collaboration between merchants and the government, hence scoring no marks.
Means [1 mark] :
- Establishing links with political parties Clue [1 mark] : - ‘But potentially more effective were the political parties, with which business had close links’
The Japanese middle class established connections with political parties to protect its interest. According to source C, the author describes political parties and business as having “close links”, meaning that they were closely related to each other, the influence of the business rose to a level that “no government could afford to ignore”, middle class attempted to protect their interest by developing good relations with politicians.
(c) Does Source C adequately reflect why party politics in Japan failed eventually in the 1930s? Explain your answer with referenced to Source C and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to use the Source and their own knowledge in explaining why party politics in Japan failed in the 1930s. however, some candidates did not understand the key phrase ‘adequately reflect’, and used either the Source or their own knowledge only, hence losing marks.
L1 Lopsided (merely referring to the Source or citing relevant historical fact) or holding the view of ‘adequate’. [max. 4] L2 Refer to both the Source and cite relevant historical facts; clearly state the viewpoint. [max. 7]
- There were factionalism, unruliness and corruption. - The party leaders made little attempt to cultivate the appropriate skills. - The party leaders were conservative. Own knowledge e.g.
- Japan did not have a tradition of democracy and constitutionalism. - The party government’s policy of cooperating with the Western powers was considered by the militarists as a sign of weakness. - The appeal of democracy subsided after the Great Depression and the rise of totalitarianism.
The source was inadequate in reflecting the reasons of the failure of party politics in Japan in the 1930s. Source C states that parties colluded with capitalists, as the author describes them of having a “close link”, politicians safeguarded the interest of businessmen, hence the influence of the middle class reached a “position in society that no government could afford to ignore”. Politicians corrupted and failed to prioritize people’s interest, which eventually led to the failure of party politics. Source C also shows that middle class actively engaged in politics, some of them even held a “direct political role”, who “acted as pressure groups that sought to influence the government’s outlook and specific decisions”, the middle class harmed common people’s interest while maximizing their own interest, meanwhile, politicians also failed to gain popular support, therefore party politics failed. In addition, source C criticizes parties of being “unruly” and “corrupt”, party leaders lacked distinct personal style, they “made little attempt to cultivate the appropriate skills” to win support from people, parties “failed to build up any popular support”, hence party politics failed in 1930s. However, the source fails to reflect some other reasons. According to my own knowledge, politicians failed to address to economic crisis efficiently, for instance there were The Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, Bank Crisis in 1927 and the Great Depression in 1929, 3 million people were unemployed and discontent emerged among people, therefore parties could not win support from people and failed eventually. Furthermore, the image of politicians was feeble, they chose to compromise in face of superpower’s suppression, for instance in the Washington Conference (1921-1922) and London Naval Conference (1930), Japan was demanded to return its interest in ShanDong in China, its naval development was also limited, all of which undermined Japanese national glory and interest, Japanese people were disappointed, finally parties lost support and failed in 1930s. Last but not least, party politicians were corrupt, ever since Hara Takashi became Prime Minister in 1918, the cabinet was dismissed 11 times until 1932, in other words, the average term of each Prime Minister did not exceed 3 years. Party politicians even colluded with Zaibatsu, for example reported cases of violating the Election Law were up to 15000 in 1924, the negative image of politicians could hardly win popular support, hence party politics failed in 1930s.