L1 答案含混，未能有效引用資料。 [最多1分] L2 解釋清楚，並能恰當引用資料。 [最多3分] 例：
- 九個人睡在同一張床，顯示屋住環境過於擠逼。 - 籠屋內睡著一個人，用一個大鎖保護自己，顯示他需要與陌生人同用一張「碌架床」，居住環境欠缺安全。 * 一般考生會選答當時的房屋問題是嚴重的。倘考生持梳反意見，只要言之成理，亦應酌量給分。
1960年代香港房屋問題嚴重。 參考資料A，漫畫家描述當時一家房屋由近9個人居住，反映當時居住環境擠逼，多人同居一個單位，生活環境惡化，房屋問題確實嚴重。 此外，漫畫家於資料A描繪當時港人居住在籠屋，而且捉襟見肘，床子的大小不適合一個成年男子使用，房屋空間細小實在不宜居住，故房屋問題嚴重。
L1 答案片面，僅依據資料或引用相關史實。 [最多3分] L2 答案全面，既依據資料亦引用相關史實。 [最多5分]
- 其中一張床睡著九個人，當中有五個小童，證明大家庭的觀念當時仍然流行。 - 資料顯示，租容沒有甚麼家當。這反映了他們很窮，沒有能力負擔更好、更安全的居所。 個人所知 例：
- 自1940年代末始，中國大陸大量難民湧至，導致房屋需要大幅上升。 - 港府未能為貧苦大眾提供足夠住房。
參考資料A，當時一個單位居住了9個人，而其中5個為小孩，這意味著漫畫家認為當時社會流行大家庭觀念，小孩生得愈多愈好，所以香港人口持續上升，亦造就房屋問題出現。 而且，漫畫家於資料A中描述部分港人居住於籠屋、劏房內，這些單位雖然設備簡陋，但租金便宜。按此推斷，基於當時經濟發展慘淡，大多港人生活窮困，因而選擇租住該等單位。 就我所知，戰後嬰兒潮造成此問題出現。二戰時造成大量人命傷亡，更甚於日軍政府推行「歸鄉政策」迫使大量港人移居內地。戰後為增加生產力，以及回港重新生活，香港人口於1960年持續上升，地小人多的香港自然出現房屋問題。 此外，中國政局動盪亦造成此問題出現。隨著國內舉辦多場群眾運動，包括大躍進（1958－1960）、文化大革命（1966－1976）等，大量內地難民逃難至香港定居，結果造成人口急劇上升，房屋問題亦因而出現。 更甚，中共建國亦造成此問題出現。基於國民黨於1949年敗走台灣，中華人民共和國成立，大量資本家害怕奉行馬、列主義的共產黨中國，因此，他們帶備資金、技術及知識來港避難，結果人口迅速上升，造成房屋問題出現。
L1 答案含混，未能提供確切史實為證。 [最多2分] L2 解釋清楚，能提供相關史實為證。 [最多5分] 相關史實 例：
- 1970年代，興建新市鎮，為市民提供較佳的居住環境，並減低舊區的住屋壓力。 - 1980年代，取消「抵壘政策」，遏止內地非法入境者，以便控制人口。 - 引進各種住屋計劃，例如「居者有其屋計劃」、「自國居所貸款計劃」及「夾心階層住屋計劃」。
就我所知，香港政府推行房屋計劃來紓緩問題，包括「十年建屋計劃」、「居者有其屋計劃」等，大肆覓地興建公營房屋，建立公共屋邨讓更多港人「有瓦遮頭」，試圖解決房屋問題。 以及，香港政府填海造地，積極發展新市鎮，包括1960年代的沙田、荃灣，及至來後的大埔、屯門等地區，於區內興建大量公營房屋、醫院、公園等社會設施，安排港人入住解決嚴重的房屋問題。 更甚，香港政府成立「家庭指導計劃會」，教育港人節育知識，提出「生育有計劃，可免難負擔」口號，希望港人計劃生育，試圖通過減低出生率來緩和人口壓力，以解決房屋問題。
(a)(i) Was Hong Kong's housing problem in the 1960s serious, as reflected in Source A? Explain you answer. (3 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to use relevant clues from the source to show that the housing problem in Hong Kong was serious in the 1960s. however, some candidates merely described what they saw in the cartoon without stating whether the housing problem was serious or not.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in referring to Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear explanation, with due reference to Source. [max. 3]
- Nice people sleeping on one bed shows that the living environment was over-crowded. - A person sleeping in a cage with a big lock to protect himself showing that he had to share the bunk beds with strangers and the living environment was unsafe. * Candidates in general will hold the view that hosing problem at that time was serious. However, marks may be awarded to answers that hold the opposite view and are presented logically.
Housing problem in Hong Kong was serious in 1960s. According to source A, the cartoonist portrays that a flat could live up to nine people, reflecting the crowded living environment at the time. People had to squeeze in a small flat which shows the poor living environment and the serious housing problem. Moreover, the cartoonist shows that people live in “cage flats” and are impoverished, the size of bed is unsuitable for an adult male, such limited space indicates that housing problem was serious.
(a)(ii) What factors contributed to such a problem? Explain your answer with reference to Source A and using your own knowledge. (5 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates were able to give reasons for the problem. However, not many candidates could explain their answers with reference to both the source and their own knowledge. Some students did not pay attention to when the carton was published(1960), and mistook the
L1 A lopsided answer merely referring Source or own knowledge. [max. 3] L2 A comprehensive answer referring to both Source and own knowledge. [max. 5]
- One of the beds slept time persons, five of which were children. This reflects that the concept of big family was still prevalent then. - The tenants did not have many belongings, as reflected in the Source. It reflects that they suffered from poverty, and did not have the means for better and safer accommodation. Own knowledge e.g.
- The influx of refugees from mainland China since the later 1940s led to a rapid increase in the demand for housing. - The government did not provide adequate public housing for the poor people.
According to source A, nine people lived in a flat at the time and five of them are children, the cartoonist wants to imply that the large families were common at the time, people believed that the more children the better the family, hence the population of Hong Kong increased continuously, leading to housing crisis. Moreover, the cartoonist portrays that people are living in “cage flats” and subdivided flats, the rent was low as the environment was undesirable. From this it can be seen that the economy was not well-developed, most Hong Kong people still lived in poverty, hence they could only afford to live in such flats. According to my own knowledge, post-war “baby bloom” also led to the housing problem. WWII caused huge casualties, the Japanese government even implemented the Repatriation Policy which led to emigration from Hong Kong to mainland China. In order to revitalize productivity and as people returned to Hong Kong after the war, the population increased substantially in 1960s, with such a huge population and limited land, housing problem was inevitable. Apart from that, political instability in mainland China also gave rise to housing problem. As mass movement frequently took place in mainland China, including the Great Leap Forward (1958-1960) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), refugees escaped and migrated to Hong Kong, hence the population rose rapidly causing housing problem. Last but not least, the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) also led to housing problem. The PRC was established after Kuo Min Tang (KMT) lost in the civil war and escaped to Taiwan in 1949, capitalists were fear of a communist regime which exercise Marxist-Leninism, therefore they brought about capital, technology and knowledge and escaped to Hong Kong. Hence the population increased hugely which eventually led to the emergence of housing problem.
(b) What attempts did the Hong Kong government make in the thirty years from the 1970s to the 1990s to solve the problem? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (5 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to cite relevant examples to illustrate the Hong Kong government’s efforts to solve the housing problem in the period of the 1970s to 1990s. Weak candidates failed to point out specific attempts made by the government. Some even wrongly stated that the government of Hong Kong had implemented a one-child.
L1 Vague answer, unable to provide concrete historical facts as evidence. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanation and able to provide relevant historical facts as evidence. [max. 5] Relevant historical facts e.g.
- Building new towns in the 1970s to provide better living environment for the residents there and reduce housing pressure on the old districts. - Abolishing the ‘touch-base’ policy in 1980 to stop illegal immigration from China so as to control the growth of the population. - Introducing housing schemes such as the Home Ownership Scheme, Home Purchases Loan Scheme and Sandwich Class Housing Scheme.
According to my own knowledge, the Hong Kong government implemented several housing programmes to solve the problem, including the Ten-year Housing Programme and Home Ownership Scheme (HOS), public housing were constructed which allowed citizens to settle in, all of these show the government’s attempt in solving the housing problem. Moreover, the Hong Kong government carried out reclamation to increase land supply, new towns were also developed including Sha Tin and Tsuen Wan in 1960s, Tai Po and Tuen Mun in later years. Infrastructures such as public housings, hospitals and parks were built in the new towns so as to solve the serious housing problem in Hong Kong. Furthermore, the Hong Kong government set up the Family Planning Association to educate Hong Kong people on birth control and publicized campaigns promoting the idea of “Birth control can reduce family burden”. This was to advocate family planning so as to reduce birth rate and to slow down population growth, eventually to address to housing problem.