L1 嘗試描述日本的經濟發展，惟未能善用資料/ 或者能涵蓋整個時期。 [最多2分] L2 能描述日本的經濟發展，能證以資料的相關線索及涵蓋整個時期。 [最多3分] 例︰ - 1955-1975年間，日本經濟持續擴張（引用二十年間的國民生產總值數據為證）。
日本經濟於1955－1975年間蓬勃發展。 先從宏觀角度分析，資料A數據指出日本國民生產總值由1955年240億美元上升至1975年的4840億美元，增幅超過20倍，反映日本經濟自1955起持續增長。 再從微觀角度討論，資料A表格顯示日本經濟每5年就會增長1倍，例如國民生產總值於1955年錄得240億美元，5年後到1960年則獲430億美元；同時1970年數據為2030億美元，至1975年就達4840億美元，收益每5年就增幅1倍，經濟發展確實蓬勃。
L1 僅能指出一項轉變，或者能指出兩項轉變但未能恰當地運用資料。 [最多2分] L2 指出兩項轉變，並能恰當地運用資料。 [最多4分] 例︰ - 盟軍改變政策，由禁止日本擁有武器轉為容許它重建武備。 - 盟軍總司令由佔領日本轉為讓它獨立。
第一個轉變是日本由盟軍佔領轉變成獨立自治。 資料B文章指出日本於第二次世界大戰後被盟軍「趕回他們如鳥籠般貧乏的小島」，接受著「美國佔領」，建立盟軍政府管治日本。但十年後，基於「西方同情日本」，她們「改變立場」給予「日本人獨立」，落實自治，反映日本由原來盟軍佔領轉變為獨立自治，實為一個改變。 第二個轉變是日本由禁止擁有武器轉變成重新武裝。 資料B指出盟軍於第二次世界大戰後「禁止」日本「不再擁有武器」，以防軍國主義東山再起，威脅世界安全。然而，隨著「美國佔領後十年」，因為日本是「共產主義的防衛」的重要防線，故讓日本「重新武裝」，掌握武備，反映日本由禁止擁有武器改變成重新武裝，為另一轉變。
L1 答案含混，未能有效論及資料及相關史實，及/ 或對有關時期涵蓋不足，及/或未能處理關鍵詞「主要」。 [最多2分] L2 僅運用資料或相關史實，及/或僅能涵蓋有關時期的一部分，及/或對關鍵詞「主要」處理不足。 [最多2分] L3 能運用資料及相關史實，基本上能涵蓋有關時期的全部，並能充分處理關鍵詞「主要」。 [最多2分] 同意︰ 例︰ - 盟軍創造有利環境，使日本能大力發展經濟。（資料A及B） - 冷戰期間美國的戰略需要，為日本提供經濟發展所需的支援。（資料B） - 韓戰爆發，使美國決心恢復日本的國際地位。（個人所知） 不同意︰ 例︰ - 日本國內需求不斷上升，乃日本經濟發展的一大動力。（個人所知） - 1950年代日本脫離盟軍統治之後，外國影響力不復當年。（資料B及個人所知）
題目所言成立。 第一，1955至1975年間經濟持續增長。參考資料A，國民生產總值由1955年的240億美元上升至1975年的4840億美元，增幅超過20倍，顯示戰後日本經濟急速發展，成為經濟強國。 經濟方面，盟總政府（外國因素）頒布法令促進日本經濟發展。參考資料B，盟總政府進行「土地改革」，經佃農承耕的土地由「1945年的6,000,000英畝」下降至「1954年的1,200,000英畝」，瓦解財閥地主勢力，刺激經濟發展。 教育方面，盟總政府（外國因素）革新學校制度促進日本經濟發展。參考資料B，盟總政府「改善了教育制度」，將教育目標由服務國家轉變為培練專才，好為市場提供優質勞動力，發展經濟。 政治方面，盟總政府（外國因素）塑造有利環境發展經濟。就我所知，盟總政府於1947年頒布「昭和憲法」，確立政黨政治制度。穩定局勢有利於經濟發展，促使日本於戰後成為亞太強國。 外交方面，冷戰形勢為日本提供龐大出口市場。就我所知，韓戰（1950－1953）、越戰（1960－1975）相繼發生，這為日本工商業提供市場。商人透過出口軍事物資賺取利潤，促使日本於1945－1975年經濟急速擴張。 內在因素亦有利於刺激日本經濟發展，惟重要性較低。 第一，日人特質有利於日本戰後經濟發展。就我所知，日本政府於1907年將義務教育由4年提升至6年，結果二戰前日人（1945－1975）識字率就達99%，成為戰後經濟發展的重要資本，有利於日本於1945－1975年間成為亞太強國。 然而，外在因素比日人特質更為重要。日本戰前教育局限甚多，如國家教科書政策（1903）箝制日人思想，教育淪為宣揚國家意志的工具。相反，戰後盟總政府進行教育改革，以培訓人材作為教育目標，為勞動市場提供專才，促使經濟急速發展，所以外在因素較為重要。 第二，日本政府政策得宜有利於經濟發展。就我所知，日本政府提出「貿易立場國、「出口第一」等國策，並推行「經濟自立五年計劃」（1955），按部就班循序漸進發展經濟，終讓日本於1945－1975年經濟急速發展。 然而，外在因素比日本政府更為重要。於因果關係而言，日本政府受惠於盟總政府的成果，因為盟軍佔領（1945－1952）期間進行一系改革，包括教育改革、土地改革等，為經濟發展奠下根基，才促使戰後經濟復甦，因此外在因素更為重要。
(a) Using clues in Source A, describe Japan’s economic development in the period 1955-1975. (3 marks)
Performance was average. Some candidates failed to use appropriate data from the Source when describing Japan’s economic development in the specified period; some even failed to cover the whole period.
L1 Shows attempts to describe Japan’s economic development, but weak in using clues from the Source and/or covering the whole period. [max. 2] L2 Succeeds in describing Japan’s economic development, supported by valid clues from the Source and covering the whole period. [max. 3]
- Japan’s economy expanded continuously in the period 1955-1975 (to be supported by the GNP figures over the two decades).
Japan’s economy expanded continuously in the period 1955-1975. From a macro perspective, according to Source A, Japan’s GNP rose from US$24 billion in 1955 to US$484 billion in 1975. The GNP in 1975 was 20 times more than that in 1955, reflecting that Japan’s economy rose continuously from 1955. From a micro perspective, according to Source A, Japan’s economy had grown double in every 5 years. For example, Japan’s GNP was US$24 billion in 1955. After 5 years in 1960, it grew to US$43 billion. In 1970 and 1975, Japan’s GNP even grew to US$203 billion and US$484 billion respectively, reflecting that Japan’s economy had grown double in every 5 years. Therefore, Japan’s economy expanded continuously in the period 1955-1975.
(b) With reference to Source B, identify two changes of the Allied powers’ policy towards Japan in the decade after the Second World War. (4 marks)
Performance was average. Most candidates failed to grasp the gist of the question. The changes they described fell beyond the period in question, or such changes were relevant to Japan’s livelihood rather than about Allied powers’ policy towards Japan.
L1 identifies only on change, or able to identify two changes but unable to make due reference to the Source. [max. 2] L2 Identifies two changes, with due reference to the Source. [max. 4]
- the Allied powers reversed their policies from forbidding to allowing Japan’s rearmament. - SCAP changed from occupying Japan to granting independence to it.
Firstly, the SCAP government changed from occupying Japan to granting independence to it. According to Source B, Japan was drove “back to the cage of their meagre islands” by the Allies after the WWII. Japan was thus occupied by the US and the SCAP government was established to govern Japan. However, 10 years later, “the West ruefully reversed course” and “gave the Japanese their independence”. It reflects that Japan had changed from being occupied by the Allies to gaining independence. Secondly, the Allies changed from forbidding to allowing Japan’s rearmament. According to Source B, the Allies “forbade” Japan “ever to bear arms again” after the WWII in order to avoid the rise of militarism again in Japan. However, after 10 years of occupation, the Allies “bade them rearm and join in the defense against Communism”, allowing Japan to possess armaments. It reflects that the Allies changed from forbidding to allowing Japan’s rearmament.
(c) ‘The economic development in Japan in the period 1945-1975 was primarily due to foreign factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)
Performance was poor. Most candidates ignored the key word ‘primarily’, thus failed to compare ‘foreign factors’ and ‘other factors’. Most of them merely focused on the impact of ‘foreign factors’ on Japan’s economic development in the period 1945-1975, and treatment of ‘other factors’ was rough. Candidates should make a balanced and reasonable analysis of internal and foreign factors using Sources and own knowledge; however, such answers are rare.
L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Sources and own knowledge, and/ or with inadequate coverage of the period in question, and/or paying little attention to the key word ‘primarily’. [max. 2] L2 Merely refers to the Sources or own knowledge, and/or covering the part of the period in question, and/or with inadequate treatment of the key word ‘primarily’. [max. 4] L3 Refers to both the Sources and own knowledge, basically covering the whole period in question, with adequate treatment of the key word ‘primarily’. [max. 8] Agree: e.g.
- The allies created a favorable setting for Japan’s massive economic developments. (Sources A and B) - The US’s strategic need during the Cold War provided the support that Japan needed in developing its economy. (Source B) - The outbreak of the Korean War made the US determined to restore Japan’s international position. (own knowledge) Disagree: e.g.
- Increasing domestic demand was a strong force behind Japan’s economic development. (own knowledge) - Foreign influence became much weaker after Japan’s independence from the Allies in the 1950s. (Source B and own knowledge)
I agree with the statement. Firstly, Japan’s economy expanded continuously in the period 1955-1975. According to Source A, Japan’s GNP rose from US$24 billion in 1955 to US$484 billion in 1975. The GNP in 1975 was 20 times more than that in 1955, reflecting that Japan’s economy was experiencing a boom after the war and Japan had become an economic power. In economic aspect, the SCAP government (foreign factor) introduced policies to promote Japan’s economic development. According to Source B, the SCAP government introduced “land reform” in Japan. As a result of the reform, “only about 1,200,000 acres were tenant-farmed versus 6,000,000 in 1945”. The power and influence of the landlords were undermined and economic development was stimulated. In educational aspect, the SCAP government (foreign factor) reformed the education system in Japan which promoted Japan’s economic development. According to Source B, the SCAP government had “improved” the education system that the purpose of education changed from serving the state to nurturing talent. Thus, quality labors were provided to the market which facilitated economic development. In political aspect, the SCAP government (foreign factor) created a favorable environment for developing economy. According to my own knowledge, the SCAP government promulgated the Constitution of Japan and established a political system of party politics. Political stability in Japan facilitated economic development and hence Japan was able to become an Asian-Pacific power after WWII. In diplomatic aspect, the Cold War provided Japan a huge export market. According to my knowledge, the Korean War (1950-1953) and the Vietnam War (1960-1975) had provided huge market for the industry and commerce in Japan. The Japanese merchants earned enormous profits through exporting military materials, leading the economic boom in Japan during the period 1945-1975. Internal factor also helped stimulate Japan’s economic development but its importance was lower than foreign factor. Firstly, Japanese national traits were conducive to Japan’s economic development after the WWII. According to my own knowledge, the Japanese government extended the 4 years of compulsory education to 6 years in 1907. As a result, the Japanese (1945-1975) literacy rate reached 99% before WWII, which eventually became an important capital for its post-war economic development. Thus, Japanese national traits helped Japan become an Asian-Pacific power in the period 1945-1975. However, foreign factor was more important than the factor of Japanese national traits. There were many restrictions on pre-war education in Japan. For example, the National Textbook System introduced in 1903 aimed at controlling Japanese people’s minds, making education a tool to promote the wills of the state. Oppositely, the SCAP government reformed the Japanese education system after the WWII. The purpose of education was changed to nurturing talent and providing quality labors to the market. As a result, Japan’s economy expanded continuously. Therefore, foreign factor was more important. Secondly, favorable policies introduced by the Japanese government also facilitated Japan’s economic development. According to my knowledge, the Japanese government proposed national policies like “Export First” and also introduced the “Five-Year Plan of Economic Independence” to develop its economy step by step. Eventually, Japan’s economy expanded continuously in the period 1945-1975. However, foreign factor was more important than the Japanese government. In term of causal relationship, the Japanese government had been benefited from the contributions of the SCAP government. During the Occupation period, the SCAP government had carried out a series of reforms, including education reform and land reform. It laid the foundation for the post-war economic development of Japan. Therefore, foreign factor was more important. To conclude, the foreign factor was the most important factor in developing Japan’s economy in the period 1945-1975. Therefore, I agree with this statement.