【練習卷】二戰丨雄鵝



題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)

(a) 就雄鵝所代表的國家於漫畫所述事件中的行為而言,漫畫家有何看法?試參考資料D,解釋你的看法。(4分)


考生表現

表現一般。題目要求考生指出漫畫家對雄鵝所代表國家於漫畫所述事件中的行為所持有的看法。在漫畫中,德國(雄鵝)一方面重佔萊茵河區及撕毀羅加諾公約,另一方面卻聲稱這是一項和平的舉措。只有少數考生能夠指出漫畫家認為德國行為「表裡不一」,大部分考生則未能完整解讀該漫畫,只能看到侵略的一面。不少考生誤以為「看法」即「態度」,表現因而受到影響。個別考生的答案為「正面的看法」,然而資料難以推出這個結論,故不能接受。

評分參考

L1 嘗試指出看法,惟未能恰當地運用資料線索。 [最多2分] L2 能指出看法,並能恰當地運用資料線索。 [最多2分] 看法︰ 例︰ - 德國在萊茵河重建武裝一事,並非如德國所言般是一項和平的舉措。 線索︰ 例︰ - 鵝步及滿身裝備的鵝,象徵著一項軍事行動。行動者是納粹德國(證據是鵝身有「卍」號)。行動的目的是萊茵河地區,這在歌詞中提及。 - 德國聲稱,這是一項和平的舉措(「日耳曼強權下之和平」),但歌詞明確指出這「笨拙」。

參考答案

漫畫家認為德國重新武裝萊茵河一事將對國際社會維持和平構成威脅。 雖然漫畫家把德國描繪成一隻天鵝,並擔著「日耳曼強權下之和平」,表面上認為德國重新武裝萊茵河一事是和平行動,將有助維持國際社會的穩定,實為和平舉措。 然而,漫畫標題為「鵝步」,意思即軍隊步操時所用的一種步式,反映漫畫家認為德國重佔萊茵河行動為軍事擴張,並非德國所指和平舉措,實對國際社會構成威脅。 同時,漫畫家把「雄鵝」描繪配備滿身裝備,同時腳已踏破「羅加諾公約」,顯示漫畫家認為德國武裝萊茵河一事為軍事行為,並破壞早前建立的集體安全,對國際安全帶來危機。 最後,漫畫家描繪「雄鵝」身處滿佈「卍」旗的街道,而「卍」象徵希特拉帶帶領的納粹德國,希特拉主張對外擴張以推動德國整體發展,反映漫畫家認為德國將萊茵河軍事化一事對和平帶來負面影響。

(b) 資料D能否充分反映1919-1938年間集體安全所受到的威脅?試參考資料D,並就你對兩次大戰期間建立集體安全各項嘗試的認識,解釋你的答案。(8分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。大部分考生不明白「威脅」的意思,而以集體安全制的一般問題如國聯的弱點和裁軍會議欠成果等立論,但這並非題目所問,因此考生從個人所知所舉的例子多無關題旨。資料方面,考生普遍未能指出資料如何反映集體安住受到威脅,僅以空泛一句「資料反映集體安全受到威脅」便完事。另外,考生需明確指出哪些答案來自資料,哪些來自個人所知。

評分參考

L1 僅能運用資料或相關史實,及/或抱持「充分」的看法。 [最多4分] L2 能運用資料及相關史實,並清楚說明看法。 [最多8分] 資料︰ 例︰ - 鵝身上的武備,象徵德國嘗試重新武裝。 - 羅加諾條約被撕破,象徵第一次世界大戰後簽訂的國際條約效力有限。 個人所知︰ 例︰ - 1920及1930年代出現了侵略行為,例如意大利入侵阿比西尼亞、日本入侵中國、德國入侵奧地利。 - 德、意、日等列強退出國際聯盟。這削弱了國際聯盟的維和能力。


**「威脅」並不等同集體安全制的「一般問題/ 弱點」。它應該是某事發生後對集體安構成危害。

參考答案

資料未能充分反映1919-1938年間集體安全所受到的威脅。 第一,極權主義對集體安全構成威脅。 參考資料D,漫畫標題為「鵝步」,意思即指軍隊步操時所用的一種步式,而「雄鵝」身處的街道都掛上「卍」旗幟,意味著納粹主義經已在德國興起,並武裝起來準備侵略,威脅著集體安全體系。 同時,資料D的「雄鵝」全身武裝並踏破「羅加諾公約」,顯示德國主動破壞和平條約,背棄承諾將萊茵河區重新軍事化,破壞地區穩定對集體安全體系構成威脅。 就我所知,極權主義破壞集體安全體系。日本、德國和意大利分別於1933年和1937年退出國際聯盟,欠缺德、意、日參與的國聯認受性大降,形同虛設。結果,國聯於1930年代未能有效維持和平,亦為威脅。 其次,極權主義發動侵略破壞集體安全體系。極權主義如軍國日本、納粹德國(1933)和法西斯意大利(1922)主動對外擴張,如意大利於1935-1936年間入侵阿比西尼亞,破壞該區安全威脅集體安全體系。 第二,英、法綏靖政策亦對集體安全體系構成威脅。英法因處理國內經濟問題無瑕擔任世界警察,於是推行綏靖政策,如1938年召開慕尼黑會議將蘇台德區給予納粹德國,縱容侵略者擴張行為,這亦損害集體安全維持和平的努力。 第三,經濟大衰退也對集體安全體系構成威脅。經濟大衰退(1929)導致多個國家經濟逆發展,她們更都不願花費資源於維和工作,如美國收回對德國的楊格貸款計劃(1929),結果集體安全體系未能順利運作,亦為一威脅。 總括而言,資料並未能充分說明1919-1938年間集體安全所受到的威脅。

 參考答案(英文版)


(a) What was the cartoonist’s view of the deeds of the country represented by the gander in the event described by the cartoon? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (4 marks)


Candidate’s performance

Performance was average. The question required candidates to identify the cartoonist’s view of the deeds of the country represented by the gander in the event described by the cartoon. In the cartoon, Germany (gander) re-occupied the Rhineland and torn apart the Locarno Treaty on the one hand, and declared the deed as a peaceful one on the other. Most candidates failed to grasp the full message of the cartoon; they could only see the invasive act. Only a handful of candidates could point out the contradictory nature of Germany’s deed. Many candidates mistook ‘view’ as ‘attitude’, thus their performance was hampered. A few candidates thought that the cartoonist’s view was ‘positive’; however, the cartoon did not have any clue to this, and this kind of answer was not acceptable.

Marking Scheme

L1 Shows attempts to identify the view but weak in using clues from the Source. [max. 2] L2 Identifies the view, duly supported by clues from the Source. [max. 4]


View: e.g.

- Germany’s remilitarization in the Rhineland was not a peaceful act as claimed by Germany. Clues: e.g.

- Goose-step and the armament-bound goose symbolized military advancement. It was Nazi Germany which took the action (as evidenced by the swastika at the goose’s body). The destination was the Rhineland, as mentioned in the lyrics. - Germany claimed that it was a peaceful act (‘Pax Germanica’), but the lyrics put it explicitly that the advancement was a blunder.

Suggested Answer

The cartoonist thought that Germany’s re-militarization of the Rhineland would pose threats to peacekeeping of the international community. The cartoonist depicted Germany as a gander which carried the words “Pax Germanica”. It means that Germany’s re-militarization of the Rhineland was superficially a peacekeeping action to help maintain the stability of the international community. However, the caption of the cartoon was “The Goose- Step” which was a kind of marching step used in military parades.It reflects that the cartoonist believed Germany’s re-militarization of the Rhineland was in fact a military expansion instead of a peacekeeping action. It would pose threats to the international community. Meanwhile, in the cartoon, the gander was armed with lots of weapons and it was stepping on the Locarno Pact. It reflects that the cartoonist believed Germany’s re-militarization of the Rhineland was a military expansion, harming the collective security as well as bringing threats to world peace.  Lastly, the cartoonist depicted that there were lots of flags of “Swastika” around the gander while “Swastika” represented Nazi Germany led by Hitler. Hitler advocated strengthening Germany by military expansion and thus it reflects that the cartoonist believed the re-militarization of the Rhineland by Germany would bring negative impact on world peace.

(b) Does Source D adequately reflect the threats to collective security in the period 1919-1938? Explain your answer with reference to Source D, and using your own knowledge about attempts to establish collective security in the inter-war period. (8 marks)

Candidate’s performance

Performance was poor. Most candidates did not understand the meaning of ‘threat’, and their arguments were instead based on the general problems of the collective security system, such as weaknesses of the League of Nations and the ineffectiveness of disarmament talks, which were not what the question asked. In other words, answers from candidates’ own knowledge tended to be irrelevant. When discussing the Source, answers tended to be general; the sentence ‘The Source reflected a threat to the collective security’ was always not followed by any elaboration. Moreover, candidates needed to specify which part of their answers came from the Source, and which from their own knowledge.

Marking Scheme

L1 Merely refers to the Source or cites relevant historical facts, and/or holds the view of ‘adequate’. [max. 4] L2 Refers to the Source and cites relevant historical facts; clearly explains the personal viewpoint. [max. 8]         


Source:

e.g.

- The armaments of the goose symbolized Germany’s rearmament efforts. - The Locarno Treaty being torn to pieces symbolized the ineffectiveness of the international treaties signed after the First World War. Own knowledge: e.g.

- There were invasions in the 1920s and 1930s, such as Abyssinia by Italy, China by Japan, and Austria by Germany. - Powers such as Germany, Italy and Japan withdrew from the League of Nations. This undermined the peace-keeping capability of the League of Nations. ** ‘Threats’ should not be understood as ‘general weakness’ of the collective security system, but as something done to pose danger to the collective security.

Suggested Answer

Source D does not adequately reflect the threats to collective security in the period 1919-1938. Firstly, totalitarianism posed threats to collective security.  According to Source D, the caption of the cartoon was “The Goose- Step” which was a kind of marching step used in military parades.Also, on the street, there were many flags of “Swastika” around the gander, reflecting that Nazism had already risen in Germany that Germany was armed to prepare for aggression. The collective security was thus harmed. Meanwhile, in Source D, the gander was armed with lots of weapons and it was stepping on the Locarno Pact. It reflects that Germany had violated the peace treaty that it broke its promise to re-militarize the Rhineland, destroying regional stability as well as posing threats to collective security.  According to my own knowledge, totalitarianism destroyed collective security. Japan, Germany and Italy had withdrawn from the League of Nations in 1933 and 1937 respectively. The League of Nations thus lacked recognition due to the absence of representation of Germany, Italy and Japan. As a result, the League failed to maintain peace in the 1930s which was a threat. Moreover, totalitarianism initiated aggression to destroy collective security. Totalitarian countries such as militarist Japan, Nazi Germany (1933) and Fascist Italy (1922) actively initiated military expansion. For example, Italy invaded Abyssinia in 1935-1936, destroying regional stability and threatening collective security.  Secondly, the appeasement policy adopted by Britain and France posed threats to collective security. As Britain and France were busy with recovering domestic economies, they were unable to shoulder all burden of peacekeeping. Thus, they adopted the appeasement policy towards the aggressors. For example, they called the Munich Conference in 1938 to give the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany, encouraging the expansion of the aggressors which also undermined the efforts of collective security.  Thirdly, the Great Depression posed threats to collective security. The Great Depression (1929) caused economic recession in many countries. Thus, the countries were unwilling to spend their resources on peacekeeping. For instance, the US terminated the Young Plan introduced to Germany (1929). As a result, the collective security could not run well which was a threat. To conclude, Source D does not adequately reflect the threats to collective security in the period 1919-1938.