(a) 根據資料A所示，指出香港當時所面對的一項社會問題。試參考資料A，解釋你的答案。 (1+3分)
社會問題（1分）︰ - 居住空間擠逼/ 家庭人口過多/ 家庭經濟負擔沉重 解釋（3分） L1 解釋含混，未能有效引用相關線索。 [最多1分] L2 解釋清晰，能有效引用相關線索。 [最多3分]
香港當時面對居住人口過多，土地不足的問題。 資料A的海報出版自家庭計劃指導會，而該會成立旨在宣傳計劃生育，鼓勵各家庭夫婦仔細考慮過後及作好準備才生育，從而有計劃地控制人口，以防人口過多，故此推斷當時面對人口過多的社會問題而導致資料A的海報出現。 其次，資料A的海報中指出「生育有計劃，可免難負擔」，意即透過計劃生育，可減輕照顧孩子而帶來生活上的各種壓力，得到更舒適的生活，故可推斷當時香港面對人口過多的社會問題。 再加上，資料A的海報邀請市民到「香港家庭計劃指導會」，接受計劃生育的教育，思量過後再決定生育，以減輕社會和個人負擔，亦可反映當時香港正面對人口過多的問題。 最後，資料A中的夫婦都負擔著沉重的擔子，而擔子上的兩端分別盛載著數名孩子和房屋，壓力甚大，反映當時家庭正面對照顧多名孩子的挑戰，故推斷香港正面對人口過多的問題
L1 答案含混，未能以具體例子支持個人看法。 [最多2分] L2 解釋清楚，能以具體例子支持個人看法。 [最多4分] 適用 例︰ - 20世紀末香港的生活指數甚高，家庭問題繁多（如教育、居住），生活負擔仍然沉重。 不適用 例︰ - 20世紀末的香港出生率偏低，每一家庭大多只有1-2名子女，已沒有如海報所指的家庭人口過多的問題。 - 20世紀末的香港房屋問題已大大改善，如公營房屋以及居者有其屋等住屋計劃能有效解決住屋擠逼問題。
海報不適用於20世紀末香港的社會情況。 就我所知，隨著1978年九年免費教育的推行，港人知識水率提升，他們以工作為主，大多偏向遲婚和選擇不生育小孩。因而導致出生率出現下滑的現象，人口問題得以舒緩，故海報不適用於20世紀末香港的社會情況。 其次，港英政府亦於1972年推行「十年建屋計劃」，為香港居民建設大量公營房屋，改善房屋擠壓的問題，提供優質生活，所以海報不適用於20世紀末香港的社會情況。 另外，港英政府自1970年代起大力興建新市鎖，如沙田、屯門、大埔等地方，發展衛星城市以增加土地供應，不同種類的房屋相繼建立起來，減輕人口過盛而帶來的房屋壓力，因此海報不適用於20世紀末香港的社會情況。 最後，港英政府更推行「居者有其屋」計劃（1973），增加公共房屋單位的數量，讓市民以低於市價的價錢購買房屋，讓港人獲更舒適的房屋居住，緩和房屋擠逼的問題，可見海報不適用於20世紀末香港的社會情況。
(a) Identify one social problem that Hong Kong faced at the time, as reflected in Source A. Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (1+3 marks)
Social problem: [1 mark] - Housing congestion/ family size too large/ huge economic burden for families Explanation L1 Vague explanation, and ineffective use of relevant clues from Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear explanation, with effective use of relevant clues from Source. [max. 3]
Hong Kong was facing the problem of overpopulation with insufficient lands at that time. The poster from Source A was published from the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong which aimed at promoting family planning. It encouraged families and couples to give birth after thorough consideration and preparation in order to control the population and avoid overpopulation. Therefore, it can be deduced that Hong Kong was facing the problem of overpopulation which led to the publication of this poster. Moreover, the caption of the poster is “Don’t be overburdened. Plan your family.” which advocates people reducing the burden brought by raising children through family planning so that they can have a more comfortable life. Thus, it can be deduced that Hong Kong was facing the problem of overpopulation at that time. In addition, the poster invited the citizens to the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to receive education about family planning. It encouraged the citizens to give birth after thorough consideration in order to decrease the burden on society and individuals. It reflects that Hong Kong was facing the problem of overpopulation. Lastly, the couple in Source A were carrying heavy baskets and the two ends of the baskets were loading several children and a house, creating tremendous burden to the couples. It implies that the families at that time had to raise several children which were a challenge for them. Thus, it can be deduced that Hong Kong was facing the problem of overpopulation.
(b) Do you think that the poster was still appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury? Explain your answer using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
L1 Vague answer, without concrete examples to support views. [max. 2] L2 Clear explanation, with concrete example to support views. [max. 4]
- Living cost was high in Hong Kong by the end of the 20thcentury, with huge family expenditures (in education, housing, etc.). Burden remained high. Inappropriate e.g.
- Birth rate changed to be low in Hong Kong by the end of the 20thcentury. Most of the families only had 1-2 children each. Therefore, the overpopulation issue as reflected in the poster became non-existent. - There were obvious improvement in Hong Kong’s housing by the end of the 20thcentury. Public housing and housing schemes such as Home Ownership Scheme gave effective solution to the housing congestion problem.
The poster was not appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury. According to my knowledge, since the implementation of 9 years of compulsory education in 1978, the education level of Hong Kong people had increased. Most Hong Kong people mainly focus on their career and they prefer late marriage and not to raise children, resulting in a decline in birth rate. Therefore, the overpopulation issue was relieved and the poster was not appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury. Moreover, the Hong Kong British government introduced the 10-Year Housing Programme in order to provide large number of public housing for Hong Kong residents. The problem of cramped housing was improved so the quality of life of Hong Kong people was enhanced. Therefore, the poster was not appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury. In addition, the Hong Kong British government introduced the development of new towns since the 1970s. Places such as Sha Tin, Tuen Mun and Tai Po were developed to increase land supply. Different types of housings were built in order to relieve the housing pressure brought by overpopulation. Therefore, the poster was not appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury. Lastly, the Hong Kong British government introduced the Home Ownership Scheme (1973) to increase the number of public housing. Under this scheme, Hong Kong residents could purchase flats at discounted prices so that they could have a more comfortable living environment and the problem of cramped housing could be alleviated. Therefore, the poster was not appropriate for illustrating Hong Kong’s social conditions by the end of the 20thcentury.