看法（1分）︰ - 蘇聯與西方改善關係的政策欠缺誠意/ 表裡不一。 解釋（3分） L1 解釋含混，未能有效引用相關線索。 [最多1分] L2 解釋清晰，能有效引用相關線索。[最多3分] 線索︰ - 赫魯曉夫雖笑著說「談判之門仍然大開」，但打開大門後卻只見牆壁，沒有出路。
漫畫家認為蘇聯表面上與西方國家友好談判，然而實際上欠缺誠意。 資料G漫畫中的文字指「赫魯曉夫︰談判之門仍然大開」，喻意赫魯曉夫願意與西方國家溝通談判，商討改善彼此關係的方法，故赫魯曉夫表面上與西方國家改善關係。 同時，漫畫中的赫魯曉夫滿意笑容地打開大門，而地上的毛毯持「歡迎」兩字，反映赫魯曉夫樂意與西方談判改善彼此關係，所以赫魯曉夫表面上歡迎西方國家。 然而，談判之門的背後是一磚牆壁，即使西方國家應邀與赫魯曉夫談判也好，亦未能進入房屋討論，無所適從得不其所，因此赫魯曉夫欠缺誠意，實際上欠熱誠與西方改善關係。 由此可見，赫魯曉夫表面上嘗試與西方國家談判並改善關係，但實際上欠缺誠意。
L1 論述含混，未能有效運用資料及相關史實。[最多2分] L2 論述欠均衡，僅能運用資料或相關史實。[最多4分] L3 論述合理及均衡，能同時運用資料及相關史實。[最多7分] 能應用︰ 例︰ - 1953-1964年間，蘇聯曾努力改善與西方的關係。例如，韓戰結束了，又從奧地利撒軍，並參與日內瓦一場友好的高峰會議。（資料H） - 然而，蘇聯在這個時期仍存心與西方競爭，甚至仍存敵意。以蘇聯為首的華沙公約國組織與西方國家組成的北約皆為軍事組織，互相敵視。（個人史識） - 雖然1962年古巴導彈危機以赫魯曉夫對美國作出妥協結束，但亦反映出蘇聯意圖在美國的門口建立導彈基地。 **考生一般會認為漫畫家的看法可應用於有關時期蘇聯導西方的政策。然而，考生若持其他觀點而又言之成理者，應酌量給分。**
漫畫家的看法適用於1953-1964年間蘇聯對西方國家的政策。 蘇聯對西方國家持表面上友好的政策。 資料H指「1953年韓戰結束」，即指由1950年開始背後由美國支持的南韓與由蘇聯支持的北韓對抗得以解決，雙方解除敵對關係，「有助緩和緊張氣氛」，和平共存，故蘇聯對西方國家持友好的政策。 同時，資料H指1955年「蘇聯從奧地利撒軍」，遷移由二戰以來駐守奧地利的軍隊，而且「各大國在日內瓦召開了一場友好的高峰會議」，樂意與西方國家以會議的方式進行談判，所以蘇聯對西方國家持友好的政策。 然而，實際上，蘇聯欠缺誠意與熱誠與西方國家進行談判。 資料H指蘇聯高度宣揚其「太空成就」，就如「1957年發射了世界首個衛星『史普特尼克號』」，宣傳太空科技的成就，向西方國家作出挑戰，所以蘇聯欠缺誠意與西方國家改善關係。 就我所知，蘇聯於1955年聯同東歐共產主義國家建立「華沙公約組織」，與西方國家的「北大西洋公約組織」（1949）形成對立局面，惡化蘇聯與西方國家的關係，因此蘇聯欠缺誠意與西方國家商討和平共存。 同時，蘇聯由1961年起於東西德邊界築起「柏林圍牆」，讓德國一分為二，斷東西德彼此聯繫，此舉亦有損蘇聯與西方國家的關係，故蘇聯欠缺誠意與西方國家改善關係。 最後，隨著共產主義政權於古巴建立，蘇聯於古巴設立導彈基地，抗衡於西方國家的同時向西方國家作出挑戰，反映蘇聯欠缺誠意與西方國家進行談判。 由此可見，漫畫家的看法適用於1953-1964年間蘇聯對西方國家的政策。
(a) What is the cartoonist’s view of the USSR’s policy towards the West in 1962? Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (4 marks)
View: - The Soviet Union lacked sincerity/ was inconsistent in its policy of reconciling with the West.[1 mark] Explanation: L1 Vague explanation, ineffective in using relevant clues from Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear explanation, effective in using relevant clues from Source. [max. 3] Clue: - Khrushchev was in smile when saying ‘the door to negotiations remains open’, but the opened door led to a wall instead of an outlet.
The cartoonist thought that the USSR was willing to negotiate with the West superficially but in fact the USSR lacked sincerity. According to Source G, the caption of the cartoon is “Khrushchev: the door to negotiations remains open”, showing that Khrushchev was willing to negotiate with the western countries in order to improve their relationships. Thus, Khrushchev was superficially willing to improve relationships with the West. Meanwhile, in the cartoon, Khrushchev opened the door with a smile. The blanket on the ground also labelled “Welcome”, implying that Khrushchev was willing to negotiate with the West so that their relationships would improve. Thus, Khrushchev superficially welcomed the western countries. However, behind the door to negotiations was a brick wall. It implies that the western countries could not enter the room for negotiations even though they were welcomed by Khrushchev. Therefore, it shows that Khrushchev actually lacked sincerity to negotiate with the West to improve their relationships. To conclude, Khrushchev was willing to negotiate with the West superficially but in fact he lacked sincerity.
(b) Is the cartoonist’s view you identified in (a) applicable to the USSR’s policy towards the West in the period 1953-1964? Explain your answer with reference to Source H, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
L1 Vague argument, ineffective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Unbalanced argument, using only Source or own knowledge. [max. 4] L3 Reasonable and balanced argument, using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 7]
- In the period 1953-1964, the Soviet Union made efforts to improve relations with the West. For example, it ended the Korean War, recalled its army from Austria, and participated in a friendly summit meeting at Geneva. (Source H) - However, the Soviet Union remained competitive and even hostile to the West in the period. The Warsaw Pact Organization, headed by the Soviet Union, was antagonistic to the NATO of the Western counties, both institutions being military in nature. (own knowledge) - The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, though ended by Khrushchev’s willingness to yield to the US, showed the Soviet Union’s intention to have a missile base just at the doorstep of the US. (own knowledge) ** Candidates in general will hold the view that the cartoonist’s view is applicable to the USSR’s policy towards to the West in the relevant period. However, marks may be awarded to answers that reflect other views and are presented logically.**
The cartoonist’s view was applicable to the USSR’s policy towards the West during the period 1953-1964. The USSR adopted friendly policy towards the West superificially. According to Source H, ‘the ending of the Korean War in 1953 helped ease tensions”. It implies the confrontation since 1950 between South Korea and North Korea supported by the US and the USSR respectively finally came to an end. Both countries were no longer hostile towards each other and they sought to coexist peacefully. Thus, the USSR adopted friendly policy towards the West. Meanwhile, according to Source H, “the USSR recalled its army of occupation from Austria” in 1955. The USSR had recalled its troops stationed in Austria since the World War II. Also, “there was a friendly summit meeting of the main powers at Geneva”. It shows that the USSR was willing to negotiate with the West through the summit. Thus, the USSR adopted friendly policy towards the West. However, in fact, the USSR lacked sincerity to negotiate with the West. Source H stated that the USSR boasted of its“achievements in space”, such as “the launching of the world’s first satellite, Sputnik, in 1957”. The USSR promoted its achievements in space to challenge the western countries. Thus, it indicates that the USSR lacked sincerity to improve its relationships with the West. According to my own knowledge, the USSR established the Warsaw Pact alliance in 1955 with the communist countries to counter the NATO (1949) led by the Western countries. It had worsened the relationships among the USSR and the West. Therefore, the USSR lacked sincerity to improve its relationships with the West. At the same time, the USSR constructed the Berlin Wall on the border between East and West Germany since 1961. Germany was then divided into two parts and the communication between the East and West Germany was blocked. It deteriorated the relationships among the USSR and the West and thus the USSR lacked sincerity to improve its relationships with the West. Lastly, since a communist regime was established in Cuba, the USSR set up missile bases in Cuba to confront against the western countries. It was indeed a challenge issued by the USSR to the West. Thus, the USSR lacked sincerity to improve its relationships with the West. Therefore, the cartoonist’s view was applicable to the USSR’s policy towards the West during the period 1953-1964.