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維和努力|蘭斯當

資料E    

以下取材自 1905 年 10 月 31 日出版的漫畫,當時第一次摩洛哥危機仍在進行中。 它的名字是「蘭斯當與德爾卡塞」。 

Lansdowne(British foreign minister): (英國外交大臣)蘭斯當男爵

Declasse (French foreign minister): (法國外交部長):德爾卡塞


上半圖文字

「這裡!拿去吧(桌子底外遞過手槍),而且不要弄丟!你可以依靠我。」

下半圖文字

「你在這裡捉了誰?!我不認識這傢伙。」

資料F    

以下取材自一份歷史文獻。 

英德同盟失敗的真正解釋。 該不是德國的強項,而是德國的弱項。 畢竟,是英國人扼殺了同盟的想法。    


他們這樣做並不是因為德國開始對英國構成威脅,而是相反,因為他們意識到她沒有構成威脅。當然,英國的主要擔憂是減少而不是增加代價高昂的海外衝突的可能性。儘管德國人有妄想症,但事實上,與僅僅渴望擁有一個帝國的國家相比,這些國家更可能是已經擁有龐大帝國的國家。出於這個原因,對法國和俄羅斯採取了更有成效的外交途徑也就不足為奇了。正如外交部助理副部長弗朗西斯·伯蒂於 1901 年 11 月所說,反對英德聯盟的最佳論據是,如果締結聯盟,「我們[應該]永遠不會與法國(我們在歐洲和世界許多地方的鄰國)或俄羅斯(其邊界與我們的邊界相同,或在亞洲的大部分地區幾乎相同)保持體面的關係。」索爾茲伯里和塞爾伯恩*對法國和德國的相對優點採取了非常相似的觀點。 1901 年,德國因害怕激怒俄國而不願支持英國的對華政策,這僅證實了英國的觀點:儘管德國如此狂妄,但它仍然是軟弱的。    


1904 年 4 月 8 日的英法友好協約取得了一定的成果,但事實證明它有兩個更廣泛的影響。 它降低了與德國保持良好關係對英國的重要性,這一點在第一次摩洛哥危機中變得明顯,這場危機始於 1905 年 3 月 31 日德皇在丹吉爾登陸並要求召開國際會議以重申摩洛哥的獨立。 蘭斯當並非支持德國在摩洛哥「敞開大門」的論點,而是擔心這場危機可能會推翻德爾卡塞**並以法國撤退而告終。 

* 索爾茲伯里和塞爾伯恩是英國政客

** 德爾卡塞是法國政客


(a) 設計一個稱號予英國外交大臣蘭斯當。試根據資料E,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 從資料F歸納兩個導致英德同盟失敗的原因。試參考資料F,解釋你的答案。       

(4分)


(c) 在1900-14年間,爲什麽歐洲列强失去許多機會去防止第一次世界大戰爆發。試參考資料E及F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。         

(8分)


 

SOURCE E    

The following is adapted from a cartoon published on 31st October 1905, when the First Moroccan Crisis was still ongoing. It is entitled “Lansdowne and Delcassé”.


Top picture

“There! Take it [passing a gun under the table] and don’t miss ! You   can rely on me.”

Bottom picture

“Who have you caught there? I don’t know the fellow.”

SOURCE F    

The following is adapted from a historical article.

The real explanation for the failure of the Anglo-German alliance. The project was not German strength but German weakness. It was, after all, the British who killed off the alliance idea, as much as the Germans.     


And they did so not because Germany began to pose a threat to Britain, but, on the contrary, because they realized she did not pose a threat. The primary British concern had, of course, been to reduce rather than increase the likelihood of expensive overseas conflicts. Despite German paranoia, these were in fact much more likely to be with powers which already had large empires than with a power which merely aspired to have one. For this reason, it is not surprising that rather more fruitful diplomatic approaches ended up being made to France and Russia. As the assistant under-secretary at the Foreign Office, Francis Bertie, said in November 1901, the best argument against an Anglo-German alliance was that if one were concluded 'we [should] never be on decent terms with France, our neighbor in Europe and in many parts of the world, or with Russia, whose frontiers are coterminous with ours or nearly so over a large portion of Asia'. Salisbury and Selborne* took a very similar view of the relative merits of France and Germany. German reluctance to support British policy in China in 1901 for fear of antagonizing Russia merely confirmed the British view: for all her bluster, Germany was weak.    



The Anglo-French Entente Cordiale of 8 April 1904 amounted, but it proved to have two broader implications. It demoted the importance to Britain of good relations with Germany, as became evident during the first Moroccan crisis, which began when the Kaiser landed at Tangier on 31 March 1905 and demanded an international conference to reaffirm Morocco's independence. Far from supporting the German arguments for an 'Open Door' in Morocco, Lansdowne worried that the crisis might topple Delcasse** and end with a French retreat.   

* Salisbury and Selborne were British politicians

** Delcasse was France politician


(a) Design a title for the British foreign minister Lansdowne. Explain your answer with reference to Source E.   

(3 marks)


(b) Conclude from Source F two reason that made failure of the Anglo-German Alliance. Explain your answer with reference to Source F.

(4 marks)


(c) Why did the European powers lose many opportunities to prevent the First World War in the period 1900-14?  Explain your answer with Sources E and F and using your own knowledge.            

(8 marks)



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