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我同意以對法國的強力進攻開始戰爭的基本思想,而原本以弱兵力對抗俄羅斯。 如果尋求對法國迅速做出決定,那麼攻擊不應只針對該國堅固的東部前線。 如果如預期的那樣,法國軍隊仍在這條戰線後面守勢,就不可能迅速突破; 即使是突圍,也會使德國軍隊或成功突圍的部隊遭受來自雙方的側翼攻擊。


當然,重要的是,為了在比利時取得進展,右翼應該盡可能強大。 但我不能同意信中要求除了比利時之外還違反荷蘭中立。 一個敵對的荷蘭在我們背後可能會對德軍向西推進造成災難性的後果,特別是如果英國應該以違反比利時中立為藉口對我們發動戰爭。 一個中立的荷蘭保衛我們的後方,因為如果英國因我們違反比利時的中立而向我們宣戰,她自己不能違反荷蘭的中立。 她不能為了戰爭而去違反她的法律。 此外,在荷蘭擁有一個中立的國家使我們能夠擁有進口和供應,這將是非常重要的。 她一定是使我們能夠呼吸的氣管。 



漫畫1: 漫畫2:




德皇(放心地對土耳其說):「一切都交給我。 你所要做的就是爆炸。」

土耳其:「是的,我完全明白。 但當一切都結束時,我將在哪裡?」 

Morocco: 摩洛哥

(a) 參考資料A,指出並解釋德國在制定軍事策略時考慮的一項原則。


(b) 從資料B推斷出兩個德國於1914年前的外交行動。試參考資料B,支持你的答案。


(c) 「1900-1914年間,歐洲競爭主要來自德國。」你是否同意?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。




The following article was the German military’s chief of staff, General Helmuth von Moltke, made these comments on the Schlieffen Plan in a memorandum from 1911. 

I agree with the basic idea of opening the war with a strong offensive against France while initially remaining on the defensive with weak forces against Russia. If a quick decision is sought against France, the attack should not be directed exclusively against the strongly fortified eastern front of that country. If, as may be expected, the French army remains on the defensive behind that front, there is no chance of quickly breaking through; and even a break-through would expose the German army, or those sections which have made it, to flank attack from two sides.   

It is important, of course, that for an advance through Belgium the right wing should be made as strong as possible. But I cannot agree that the envelope demands the violation of Dutch neutrality in addition to Belgian. A hostile Holland at our back could have disastrous consequences for the advance of the German army to the west, particularly if England should use the violation of Belgian neutrality as a pretext for entering the war against us. A neutral Holland secures our rear because if England declares war on us for violating Belgian neutrality she cannot herself violate Dutch neutrality. She cannot break the very law for whose sake she goes to war. Furthermore, it will be very important to have in Holland a country whose neutrality allows us to have imports and supplies. She must be the windpipe that enables us to breathe. 


The following cartoons were respectively adapted in 1905 and 1914. 

Cartoon 1:

Cartoon 2:

Sitting Tight

French Gendarme [policeman]: “Here I am.” 

German Gendarme: “Here I stay.”   

The Kaiser (to Turkey reassuringly): “Leave everything to me. All you’ve got to do is to explode.” 

Turkey: “Yes, I quite see that.”   

(a) With reference to Source A, identify and explain one principle for Germany planning her military strategies.

(3 marks)

(b) Infer from Source B two Germany diplomatic actions before 1914. Explain your answer with reference to Source B. 

(4 marks)

(c) ‘During 1900-1914, European confrontations were primarily due to Germany’s plan.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A, B and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)

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