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爆發原因|歡樂的鳴槍

資料A

以下取材自1906年的英國雜誌。此會議是為了解決圖中兩國(德國及法國)於摩洛哥的殖民地糾紛。

歡樂的鳴槍

阿爾勒西斯會議實際上已經在兩個敵對大國共同滿意的情況下結束,它們過往的分歧一直威 脅到比外交決鬥更糟糕的結果。


*Algeciras Conference:阿爾勒西斯會議


資料B

以下以下內容改編自赫爾穆特·卡爾·貝恩哈特·馮·於 1914 年 7 月 29 日給特奧巴爾德·馮·貝特 曼-霍爾韋格的備忘錄。赫爾穆特·卡爾·貝恩哈特·馮負責德國武裝部隊。

奧塞事件純屬私下的爭吵,如果沒有俄羅斯的干涉,根本不會威脅到歐洲的和平。奧地利已宣布不打算以塞爾維亞為代價進行任何領土掠奪。它只動員了一部分武裝力量——足以懲罰塞爾維亞。俄羅斯宣布它打算在奧地利前進時動員起來,因為它不允許摧毀塞爾維亞,儘管奧地利已經解釋說它不打算這樣做。如果德國不想信守諾言,它就必須動員起來。俄羅將能夠說:我正在受到德國的攻擊。然後它將保證法國的支持,法俄聯盟將變得活躍,歐文明國家的相互屠殺將開始。不可否認,這件事是俄羅斯精心策劃的。德國不想引發這場戰爭,但如果不幫助其盟友,它將違背國家的所有感情。

(a) 你認爲漫畫的主要信息是什麽?根據資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3 分)


(b) 比較德俄兩國在奧塞事件後的部署。根據資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4 分)


(c) 「第一次世界大戰是歐洲列強外交唯一可能的結果。」你同意嗎?參考資料A,B及就你 所知,解釋你的答案。

(8 分)


 

SOURCE A

The following is adapted from a British magazine in 1906. This conference was held to solve the colonial conflict in Morocco between two countries shown in the cartoon -- Germany and France.

Shots of Joy

The Algeciras Conference has practically been concluded to the mutual satisfaction of the two rival powers whose differences at one time threatened to end in something worse than a diplomatic duel.


SOURCE B

The following is adapted from a memorandum from Helmuth von Moltke to Bethmann Hollweg, 29 July 1914. Moltke was in charge of the German armed forces.

The Austrian-Serbian affair is a purely private quarrel, which would in no way threaten the peace of Europe, if Russia had not interfered with it. Austria has declared it does not intend any territorial acquisitions at Serbia’s expense. It has only mobilized a portion of its armed forces – just enough to punish Serbia. Russia announces it intends to mobilize when Austria advances as it cannot permit the destruction of Serbia, though Austria has explained it intends nothing of the sort. If Germany is not to be false to its word, it must mobilize. Russia will be able to say: I am being attacked by Germany. It will then assure itself of the support of France and the French-Russian alliance will become active, and the mutual butchery of the civilized nations of Europe will begin. It cannot be denied that the affair has been cunningly contrived by Russia. Germany did not want to bring about this war but it would be setting itself against all the feelings of the nation if it did not assist its ally.


(a) What, in your opinion, is the main message of the cartoon? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Compare the dispositions of Germany and Russia after the Austrian-Serbian affair. Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)


(c) “The First World War was the only possible result of European diplomacy.” Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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