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阿爾勒西斯會議實際上已經在兩個敵對大國共同滿意的情況下結束,它們過往的分歧一直威 脅到比外交決鬥更糟糕的結果。

*Algeciras Conference:阿爾勒西斯會議


以下以下內容改編自赫爾穆特·卡爾·貝恩哈特·馮·於 1914 年 7 月 29 日給特奧巴爾德·馮·貝特 曼-霍爾韋格的備忘錄。赫爾穆特·卡爾·貝恩哈特·馮負責德國武裝部隊。


(a) 你認爲漫畫的主要信息是什麽?根據資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3 分)

(b) 比較德俄兩國在奧塞事件後的部署。根據資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4 分)

(c) 「第一次世界大戰是歐洲列強外交唯一可能的結果。」你同意嗎?參考資料A,B及就你 所知,解釋你的答案。

(8 分)



The following is adapted from a British magazine in 1906. This conference was held to solve the colonial conflict in Morocco between two countries shown in the cartoon -- Germany and France.

Shots of Joy

The Algeciras Conference has practically been concluded to the mutual satisfaction of the two rival powers whose differences at one time threatened to end in something worse than a diplomatic duel.


The following is adapted from a memorandum from Helmuth von Moltke to Bethmann Hollweg, 29 July 1914. Moltke was in charge of the German armed forces.

The Austrian-Serbian affair is a purely private quarrel, which would in no way threaten the peace of Europe, if Russia had not interfered with it. Austria has declared it does not intend any territorial acquisitions at Serbia’s expense. It has only mobilized a portion of its armed forces – just enough to punish Serbia. Russia announces it intends to mobilize when Austria advances as it cannot permit the destruction of Serbia, though Austria has explained it intends nothing of the sort. If Germany is not to be false to its word, it must mobilize. Russia will be able to say: I am being attacked by Germany. It will then assure itself of the support of France and the French-Russian alliance will become active, and the mutual butchery of the civilized nations of Europe will begin. It cannot be denied that the affair has been cunningly contrived by Russia. Germany did not want to bring about this war but it would be setting itself against all the feelings of the nation if it did not assist its ally.

(a) What, in your opinion, is the main message of the cartoon? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)

(b) Compare the dispositions of Germany and Russia after the Austrian-Serbian affair. Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)

(c) “The First World War was the only possible result of European diplomacy.” Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)

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