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戰爭角色|「預防性」戰爭 (WW1)

資料F

以下取材自某歷史書著作。

德國人想要發動戰爭不只是因為他們覺得受包圍,更多的是因為他們覺得德國漸漸陷入被歐洲各國圍困的狀態。德國同時受到英國優越的海上實力,以及俄國大規模軍事擴張的威脅。此外,俄羅斯人亦從法國政府龐大的貸款額中受益。戰爭爆發時擔任德國外交部長的馮·比洛曾引述毛奇於1914年初期時的話語,指出德國人並沒有其他選擇,唯有發動一場「預防性」戰爭,以求在敵人變得太強之前消滅她們。因此,德國將領們決定,一場為求生存的「預防性」戰爭是必須的,並且要在1914年完結前發動。

(a) 根據資料F,為何德國人認為此戰爭是一場「預防性戰爭」呢?參考資料F,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(b) 「德國在第一次世界大戰爆發時擔任最重要的角色。」你同意嗎?參考資料F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

SOURCE F

The following is extracted from a history book.

The Germans wanted war not only because they felt encircled, but because they felt that the net was closing in on them. They were threatened by superior British naval power and by the massive Russian military expansion. On the other hand the Russians had been helped by huge loans from the French government. Von Jagow, who was German Foreign Minister at the outbreak of war, reported comments made earlier in 1914 in which Moltke stated that there was no alternative for the Germans but to make ‘preventive’ war in order to defeat their enemies before they became too powerful. The German generals had decided that a ‘preventive’ war, a war for survival, was necessary, and that it must take place before the end of 1914.

(a) According to Source F, why the German thought the war was a ‘preventive war’? Explain your answer with reference to Source F.

(4 marks)


(b) ‘Germany played the most important role in the outbreak of WW1.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference Sources E, F and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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