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戰爭角色|「預防性」戰爭 (WW1)




(a) 根據資料F,為何德國人認為此戰爭是一場「預防性戰爭」呢?參考資料F,解釋你的答案。


(b) 「德國在第一次世界大戰爆發時擔任最重要的角色。」你同意嗎?參考資料F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。




The following is extracted from a history book.

The Germans wanted war not only because they felt encircled, but because they felt that the net was closing in on them. They were threatened by superior British naval power and by the massive Russian military expansion. On the other hand the Russians had been helped by huge loans from the French government. Von Jagow, who was German Foreign Minister at the outbreak of war, reported comments made earlier in 1914 in which Moltke stated that there was no alternative for the Germans but to make ‘preventive’ war in order to defeat their enemies before they became too powerful. The German generals had decided that a ‘preventive’ war, a war for survival, was necessary, and that it must take place before the end of 1914.

(a) According to Source F, why the German thought the war was a ‘preventive war’? Explain your answer with reference to Source F.

(4 marks)

(b) ‘Germany played the most important role in the outbreak of WW1.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference Sources E, F and using your own knowledge.

(8 marks)

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