列強關係丨巴爾幹半島

資料A

下文節錄自塞爾維亞「統一或死亡會」(別稱「黑手黨」)的章程,出版於1911年。

第一章:
本組織以實現以下的國民理想作為創始目的:統一所有的塞爾維亞人。所有塞族人,不論性別、宗教或出生地點,只要誠心獻身於上述理想,均可加入。

第二章:
在恐怖主義行動和知識分子宣傳中,本組織寧可選擇前者。因此,本組織的存在必須嚴加守秘。

第三章:
本組織的名稱為「統一或死亡會」。

第四章:
為求達到目的,本組織會報行以下各項:
1. 對政界、各社會階層和塞爾維亞王國的整體社會生活施加影響力;
2. 在所有塞爾維亞人的聚居地組織革命行動;
3. 在塞爾維亞的國境外,以一切方法對抗塞族國民理想的敵人;
4. 與支持塞爾維亞和塞族元素的國家、民族、組織和個人保持友好關係。

資料B

以下德國漫畫出版於1912年。圖中左方的人代表英國,右方的人代表俄國。

在巴爾幹大火的靠不住消防員



(a) 從資料A推斷黑手黨的兩項特徵。試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(b) 你認為資料B漫畫的主要信息是什麼?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(c) 資料B作者對英國和俄國持什麼態度?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(d) 你是否同意巴爾幹半島的緊張局勢促成第一次世界大戰爆發?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)


 

Source A

The following is an abstract from a regulation published in 1911 by a Serbia organization Unification or Death (also named the Black Hand).

Chapter 1:
The ultimate national aim of this organization is to realize the following nationalist ideal: To unite all Serbian. Every Serbian who is devoted to the above ideal, regardless of his or her gender, religion or place of birth, is entitled to join this organization.

Chapter 2:
Between terrorism and intellectual propaganda, this organization prefers the former approach. The existence of this organization must therefore remain confidential.

Chapter 3:
The name of this organization is Unification or Death.

Chapter 4
The following actions will be carried out to fulfill our goal:
1. To increase our influence in politics, all classes of society and the entire society of the Serbian Kingdom.
2. To organize revolutionary activities in all Serbian settlements.
3. To utilize all means against outside enemies of the Serbian nationalist ideal.
4. To maintain a good relationship with countries, nations, organizations and individuals which support Serbia.

Source B

The following cartoon was published in Germany in 1912. The man on the left represents Britain while the one on the right represents Russia.

The unreliable firefighters in the Balkan fire.


(a) Identify two characteristics of the Black Hand from source A. Explain your answer with reference to source A.

(4 marks)


(b) What do you think is the major message of source B. Explain your answer with reference to source B.

(3 marks)


(c) What is the attitude of the author of source B towards Britain and Russia? Explain your answer with reference to source B.

(4 marks)


(d) Do you agree that the tensed situation in the Balkans catalyzes the outbreak of WWI? Explain your answer with reference to source A and B and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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