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1. 對政界、各社會階層和塞爾維亞王國的整體社會生活施加影響力;
2. 在所有塞爾維亞人的聚居地組織革命行動;
3. 在塞爾維亞的國境外,以一切方法對抗塞族國民理想的敵人;
4. 與支持塞爾維亞和塞族元素的國家、民族、組織和個人保持友好關係。




(a) 從資料A推斷黑手黨的兩項特徵。試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。


(b) 你認為資料B漫畫的主要信息是什麼?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。


(c) 資料B作者對英國和俄國持什麼態度?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。


(d) 你是否同意巴爾幹半島的緊張局勢促成第一次世界大戰爆發?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。



Source A

The following is an abstract from a regulation published in 1911 by a Serbia organization Unification or Death (also named the Black Hand).

Chapter 1:
The ultimate national aim of this organization is to realize the following nationalist ideal: To unite all Serbian. Every Serbian who is devoted to the above ideal, regardless of his or her gender, religion or place of birth, is entitled to join this organization.

Chapter 2:
Between terrorism and intellectual propaganda, this organization prefers the former approach. The existence of this organization must therefore remain confidential.

Chapter 3:
The name of this organization is Unification or Death.

Chapter 4
The following actions will be carried out to fulfill our goal:
1. To increase our influence in politics, all classes of society and the entire society of the Serbian Kingdom.
2. To organize revolutionary activities in all Serbian settlements.
3. To utilize all means against outside enemies of the Serbian nationalist ideal.
4. To maintain a good relationship with countries, nations, organizations and individuals which support Serbia.

Source B

The following cartoon was published in Germany in 1912. The man on the left represents Britain while the one on the right represents Russia.

The unreliable firefighters in the Balkan fire.

(a) Identify two characteristics of the Black Hand from source A. Explain your answer with reference to source A.

(4 marks)

(b) What do you think is the major message of source B. Explain your answer with reference to source B.

(3 marks)

(c) What is the attitude of the author of source B towards Britain and Russia? Explain your answer with reference to source B.

(4 marks)

(d) Do you agree that the tensed situation in the Balkans catalyzes the outbreak of WWI? Explain your answer with reference to source A and B and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)

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