冷戰發展丨甘迺迪

資料E

以下是取自美國總理哈里.杜魯門(Harry S. Truman)在1947年在國會的演說內容。

美國外交政策的主要目標之一是「創造條件」,使我們和其他國家能夠在沒有脅迫的情況下制定出一種生活方式。這是與德國和日本的戰爭中的一個根本問題。我們已戰勝了那些國家 — 試圖將自己的意志和生活方式強加於其他國家。

今天,希臘受到共產黨領導的幾千名武裝人員的恐怖主義活動的威脅。如果要成為一個自立和自尊的民主國家,希臘必須得到援助。民主的希臘沒有其他國家可以轉向。然而,除非我們願意幫助自由人民維持其自由制度和國家完整性,反對那些試圖強加他們極權主義政權的侵略運動,否則我們就不會實現我們的目標。這只不過是坦率地承認極權主義政權通過直接或間接侵略強加給自由人民,從而破壞了國際和平的基礎,從而破壞了美國的安全。

我認為,我們必須協助自由人民以自己的方式創造自己的命運。如果我們不能在這個重要的時刻幫助希臘和土耳其,那麼將4深遠影響到西方和東方。我們必須立即採取果斷行動。事件的迅速發展給我們帶來了巨大的責任。我相信國會將正視這些責任。

資料F

以下是取自美國總統約翰.甘迺迪在1960年的演說。

讓我們重新審視一下我們對待蘇聯的態度。沒有政府或社會制度是如此邪惡,以至於人民必須被視為缺乏美德。作為美國人,我們認為共產主義對個人自由和尊嚴的否定而深感厭惡。

美國不會以犧牲其他國家和其他民族為代價與蘇聯達成協議,不僅因為她們是我們的伙伴,而且因為她們和我們的利益日趨相同。然而,我們的利益不僅在於捍衛自由的邊界,而且在於追求和平的道路。我們希望 — 以及盟國政策的目的 — 使蘇聯相信她也應該讓每個國家選擇自己的未來。共產黨將其政治和經濟制度強加給他人是當今世界緊張局勢的主要原因。

美國,正如世界所知道的那樣,永遠不會發動戰爭。我們不想要一場戰爭。我們現在不期待一場戰爭。這一代美國人已經受夠了 — 足夠的戰爭、仇恨和壓迫。如果其他人願意,我們將做好準備。我們會保持警惕,試圖阻止它。但是,我們也將盡自己的一份力量建立一個和平的世界,在這個世界裡,弱者是安全的,而強者是公正的。

(a) 推斷哈里.杜魯門的一項外交原則。試參考資料E,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 美國對蘇聯持什麼態度?參考資料F的用語及論據,支持你的答案。

(4分)


(c) 在1946至1980年代間,美國如何影響冷戰的發展?參考資料E及F,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)

 

SOURCE E

The following is adapted from a speech delivered by the US prime minister Harry S. Truman in the congress in 1947.

One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations.

The very existence of the Greek state is today threatened by the terrorist activities of several thousand armed men, led by Communists. There is no other country to which democratic Greece can turn. We shall not realize our objectives, however, unless we are willing to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes. This is no more than a frank recognition that totalitarian regimes imposed on free peoples, by direct or indirect aggression, undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States.

I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. Should we fail to aid Greece and Turkey in this fateful hour, the effect will be far reaching to the West as well as to the East. We must take immediate and resolute action. I am confident that the Congress will face these responsibilities squarely.

SORUCE F

The following is adapted from a speech delivered by the US president John F.Kennedy in 1960.

Let us re-examine our attitude towards the USSR. No government or social institution are so evil, so much that people are deemed to be lack of virtue. As an American, we utterly loathe communism’s negation of people’s freedom and esteem.

The US won’t sacrifice other countries and nation for reaching agreement with the USSR, not only because they are our allies, but also because we have similar interests day by day. However, our interest is not only protecting the boundary of freedom, but also pursuing peace. We hope ---- so as the aim of alliance system--- persuade the USSR to believe she should let every countries to decide their own future. Communist party imposes its political and economic institution on other is the major reason for today’s intense situation. 

The US, as known by the world, wouldn’t initiate war forever. We don’t want a war. We are not looking for a war. This generation of Americans had enough---- enough war, hatred and suppression. If others are willing to, we will be prepared. We will stay alert, trying to stop it. However, we will also create a peaceful world using our power, in this world, the weak are safe, while the strong are fair. 

(a) Infer one diplomatic principle of Harry S. Truman. Explain your answer with reference to source E.

(3 marks)


(b) What was the attitude of the US towards USSR? Support your answer with language and arguments with reference to source F.

(4 marks)


(c) In the period 1946-1980, how the US affect the development of Cold War? Explain your answer with reference to source E, F and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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