冷戰爆發丨美國基本安全

資料C

下列資料取材自美國秘密通報書(American top-secret briefing book),內容反映聯合參謀長(The Joint Chiefs of Staff)對冷戰的看法。


圖二︰基本威脅

對美國和自由世界的敵意

統治世界的侵略計劃

擴大國際共產主義的影響力


資料D

以下內容取材自一本歷史書。

德國問題成為戰後盟軍合作的最大障礙。戰時會議的參與者都相信德國將在二、三十年內再次崛興。這是有根據的。戰後波蘭獲得部分德國加里寧格勒地區土地,可見盟軍銳意透過重新分配土地的形式削弱德國。然而,德國問題仍然未被解決。史太林希望蘇聯不再受到西邊國家騷擾,她不能再次承受像1812年、1914年和1941年那樣沉重的襲擊。亦因如此,到戰爭完結會議仍未達到共識。蘇聯更主動擴展她西邊邊界,維護支持蘇維埃之友好政權。


(a) 從資料C推斷美國聯合參謀長對二戰後發展的一項憂慮。

(3分)


(b) 你認為資料C中的漫畫可能於哪一年繪畫?試從資料C引用一項線索,解釋你的選擇。

(3分)


(c) 蘇聯會對二戰後的德國安排感到滿意嗎?試參考資料D,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(4分)


(d) 1945-1962年的冷戰發展能否支持你在題(a) 所指出的憂慮?試參考資料C及D,並就你所知,解釋你的看法。

(7分)

 

SOURCE C

The following page is extracted from American top-secret briefing book, reflecting the view held by The Joint Chiefs of Staff towards Cold War.


SOURCE D

The following extract is adapted from a history book on the origins of the Cold War.

One of the greatest stumbling blocks to postwar inter-allied cooperation was the future of Germany. All parties believed that Germany would rise again within two to three decades – the history of 1919-1939 suggested so. The westward movement of Poland (accepted by the Allies) and Russia’s seizure of territory around Kaliningrad did shrink Germany and removed some of the old Prussian heartlands. Nevertheless, fears about Germany’s potential remained. Soviet leaders wished never again to be vulnerable to attack from the western lands of the Russian empire. Their country’s security must not again be endangered as it had been in 1812, 1914, 1919 and 1941. To achieve this, they planned for a westward movement of the Soviet borders and for upholding friendly regimes beyond them.

(a) Infer one worry held by The Joint Chiefs of Staff of the US on post-WII development with reference to Source C.

(3 marks)


(b) In what year do you think was the cartoon in Source C drawn? Cite one clue from the source to support your answer.

(3 marks)


(c) Was USSR satisfied with the post-WII settlement regarding Germany? Explain your answer with reference to Source D and your own knowledge.

(4 marks)


(d) Did the development of Cold War in the period of 1945-1962 justify your worry stated in (a)? Explain your view with reference to Sources C, D and your own knowledge.

(7 marks)


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