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(a) 作者對歐洲前景持什麼看法?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。


(b) 你認為資料B的作者會否支持英國在1914年參戰?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。


(c) 「第一次世界大戰的爆發是偶然。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料A和B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。




The following extract is about the view of the powers towards war before the First World War.

As Europe had hastened towards war, the summer of 1914 had continued as normal. The Kaiser had gone on a sailing holiday in the fjords of Norway; the French President had prepared for a trip to Russia; and King George V had opened a conference on one of the most pressing issues in British politics – home rule for Ireland. Encouraged by governments, however, emotions began to build, leading to demonstrations of patriotic feeling in many of Europe’s capitals, including London. British politicians were bullish about the war, declaring that it would be “over by Christmas”, a sentiment seized on by the British people. The German Crown Prince William (1882-1951) rejoiced in the prospect of what he described as “a gay and jolly little war”. Meanwhile, his father, William II, famously joked that it would be a case of “lunch in Paris, dinner in St. Petersburg”. Everywhere, queues formed outside recruitment offices, as men clamored to become part of what they believed would be a great adventure.


The following extract is about the situation in Britain before the First World War.

The war itself apparently offered little reason for the British working class to volunteer. Britain was not directly threatened. The counties, cities and neighborhoods in which the working classes lived suffered no occupation. Their friends and families were not in danger. The people the workers fought to defend spoke Belgian and French. The lands they protected lay across the English Channel, their place names nearly unpronounceable.    

The war itself demanded a near unanimous effort from Britain. The First World War was an industrialized mass war. It required the mobilization of the entire society. Without what historian Michael Howard called the “widest possible basis of consensus within society”, Britain could not hope to prosecute the war successfully. Pre-war, the British government did not believe such a consensus existed.

(a) What was the prospect of the author towards the future of Europe? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)

(b) Do you think the author in Source B would support the participation of Britain in the First World War? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)

(c) “The outbreak of the First World War was a coincidence.” Do you agree with the statement? Explain your answer with reference to Source A, Source B and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)

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