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偶然必然丨歡樂小戰爭(WW1)

資料A

下文取材自第一次世界大戰前列強對戰爭的看法。

當戰爭向歐洲逐步迫近,1914年的夏天卻一切依舊。德皇在挪威海峽渡假;法國總統正籌備一趟俄國之旅;英皇佐治五世就英國最迫切的愛爾蘭問題舉行會議。然而,在政府大力鼓吹下,戰爭情緒日漸高漲,造成歐洲多個主要城市包括倫敦都有愛國遊行。英國政治家看好這場戰爭,宣稱它會在「聖誕之前結束」。這個觀念為英國民眾所深信。德國皇儲形容這是一場「歡樂的小戰爭」,並以此為傲。與此同時,他的父親德皇威廉二世曾開了個著名的玩笑,指戰爭將會是「在巴黎吃午餐,然後在聖彼德堡吃晚飯。」在四周的招募站都出現長長的人龍。男子都大聲疾呼,要參與他們眼中的偉大冒險。

資料B

下文有關英國一次大戰前的情況。

明顯地,這場戰爭對於英國工人而言,參戰誘因極小。英國未有受直接威脅。工人所聚居的地方未有被佔領。戰爭並沒有危及他們的親友和家庭。然而,參與戰爭所捍衛的卻是一班講比利時語和法語的人;他們保衛的是一堆不知名、散落在英吉利海峽沿岸的土地。    


戰爭須要整個英國的共同努力。一次大戰是一場動用工廠群眾的戰爭,須要動員全國。若欠缺歷史學家麥可‧霍華提到的「最大可能的社會共識基礎」,英國將不能指望可以成功進行這一場戰爭。戰前的英國政府不相信這樣的一種共識存在。 

(a) 作者對歐洲前景持什麼看法?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。

(3分)


(b) 你認為資料B的作者會否支持英國在1914年參戰?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。

(2+2分)


(c) 「第一次世界大戰的爆發是偶然。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料A和B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。

(8分)

 

SOURCE A

The following extract is about the view of the powers towards war before the First World War.

As Europe had hastened towards war, the summer of 1914 had continued as normal. The Kaiser had gone on a sailing holiday in the fjords of Norway; the French President had prepared for a trip to Russia; and King George V had opened a conference on one of the most pressing issues in British politics – home rule for Ireland. Encouraged by governments, however, emotions began to build, leading to demonstrations of patriotic feeling in many of Europe’s capitals, including London. British politicians were bullish about the war, declaring that it would be “over by Christmas”, a sentiment seized on by the British people. The German Crown Prince William (1882-1951) rejoiced in the prospect of what he described as “a gay and jolly little war”. Meanwhile, his father, William II, famously joked that it would be a case of “lunch in Paris, dinner in St. Petersburg”. Everywhere, queues formed outside recruitment offices, as men clamored to become part of what they believed would be a great adventure.


SOURCE B

The following extract is about the situation in Britain before the First World War.

The war itself apparently offered little reason for the British working class to volunteer. Britain was not directly threatened. The counties, cities and neighborhoods in which the working classes lived suffered no occupation. Their friends and families were not in danger. The people the workers fought to defend spoke Belgian and French. The lands they protected lay across the English Channel, their place names nearly unpronounceable.    


The war itself demanded a near unanimous effort from Britain. The First World War was an industrialized mass war. It required the mobilization of the entire society. Without what historian Michael Howard called the “widest possible basis of consensus within society”, Britain could not hope to prosecute the war successfully. Pre-war, the British government did not believe such a consensus existed.

(a) What was the prospect of the author towards the future of Europe? Explain your answer with reference to Source A.

(3 marks)


(b) Do you think the author in Source B would support the participation of Britain in the First World War? Explain your answer with reference to Source B.

(4 marks)


(c) “The outbreak of the First World War was a coincidence.” Do you agree with the statement? Explain your answer with reference to Source A, Source B and your own knowledge.

(8 marks)



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