【2018】香港丨臭香港

題目拆解



 參考答案(中文版)

(a) 你認為資料A漫畫的主要信息是什麼?試參考資料A,解釋你的答案。 (3分)

考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生指出資料A漫畫的主要信息,並參考資料A解釋其答案。不少考生能夠按題目要求作答。部分考生誤以為漫畫主要反映香況的衛生問題,因而失分。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作有效解釋。[最多3分]


主要信息:

例:警察腐敗,未能維持法紀。


解釋:

例:

- 警方抓吐痰的人,卻不抓周遭的劫匪。

- 圖中的警察對吐痰者的罰款高得令人咋舌。


參考答案

漫畫的主要信息是批評香港警察貪污腐敗,未能盡忠職守。

香港警察濫用職權。參考資料A,漫畫註解稱「隨地吐痰罰款一般為15到100港元」,但資料裡拿著「月薪千元」警棍的警務人員卻向疑犯苛索「隨地吐痰罰款一仟」。這反映皇家警察以權謀私,藉其身份威嚇市民繳交巨額罰款,貪污腐敗。

香港警察欺善怕惡。參考資料A,漫畫裡的警務人員對犯下「隨地吐痰」的市民大動干戈,使用不必要武力。相反,背後一群流氓劫匪打架劫掠,他卻置之不理視若無睹。這顯示皇家警察欺負善良弱小的人,卻害怕得罪強橫的惡人,未有堅守崗位。


(b) 資料B作者對皇家香港警察持什麼態度?試參考資料B,解釋你的答案。 (4分)

考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生指出資料B作者對皇家香港警察所持態度。根據資料B,該作者對皇家警察的態度是毀譽參半。大部分考生能夠指出毀與譽的部分,但只有少數考生能完整述及兩個方面。部分考生誤讀資料,以為該作者讚賞皇家香港警察信守政治中立的立場。不過,文章後續部分已清楚顯示該作者對此並不讚賞。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答;或答案片面。[最多2分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作有效解釋,答案亦能兼顧兩項。[最多4分]


態度:

例:

- 毀譽參半

- 既讚賞,亦質疑


解釋:

例:

- 讚賞:皇家香港警察文明,效率超卓。

- 質疑:作者認為警察不關心政治是有問題的。


參考答案

作者對香港警察持欣賞的正面態度。


作者稱讚香港警察。參考資料B,作者指「香港市民是讚賞警察的工作表現」,即普羅大眾對警務人員表示滿意。而且用「文明、友善」等字詞形容,該詞語解有文化、友愛和善,顯示警方深得民心獲公眾支持,故持欣賞的正面態度。


香港警察有效率。參考資料B,作者稱其內地朋友「把身份證丟了」並「向附近的警察報案」尋求協助,不消一回「便接到警察電話」指「證件已經找到」,反映警方甚具辦事能力,是支高質素團隊,所以持滿意的正面態度。


香港警察清廉。參考資料B,承接作者朋友的個案,為答謝警方他「掏出500元表現感謝」,不過該名警察「婉拒」拒絕。這反映香港警方奉公守法,視大眾之苦為己任,努力為市民服務,因此持讚賞的正面態度。


同時,作者對香港警察持悲觀的負面態度。


香港警察保持政治中立。參考資料B,作者解釋「香港警隊信奉政治中立的立場」,許多警員對政治議題都避而不談。例如「對香港回歸中國這一歷史事表現異常平靜。這表示警察忠於政權指令,缺乏批判精神,故持傷心的負面態度。


香港警察擁護殖民地。參考資料B,作者是「中國大陸某記者」,對中國抱有愛意。於此情況底下,當他訪問警方對「殖民地」有何想法,而其回答說「無所謂」或「習以為常」均感到悲涼,有違其愛國思想,因而持不滿的負面態度。


(c) 「1967-1997年間,香港殖民地政府顯示了改善其管治的能力。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。 (8分)



考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生討論1967-1997年間香港殖民地政府是否顯示了改善其管治的能力。部分表現稍遜的考生沒有比較1967-1997年間不同時期的管治,他們只是陳述當時香港政府的各項工作。只有能力最佳的考生能夠展示該時期內香港政府在管治上的轉變,並從兩項資料和個人所知中提出佐證。



評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料和個人所知作答。 [最多2分]

L2 欠缺均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知作答。 [最多4分]

L3 答案合理且均衡,能有效使用資料個人所知作答。 [最多8分]

改善:

例:

- 皇家香港警察向來腐敗,然而在1997年時其工作已得到香港內外人士認同。(資料A及B)

- 殖民地政府推行全面的社會改革,改善了香港的整體生活水平。(個人所知)


未能改善

例:

- 香港政府未能有效應付1980年代因香港前途問題而衍生的信心危機。(個人所知)

- 香港政府向來都能與中華人民和國維持良好的工作關係,然而在其殖民地管治的最後十年,該等關係卻未能得到維持。(個人所知)


參考答案

題目所言確能成立。


第一,香港政府於1967-1997年間改善警察問題。


香港警察於1974年未有盡忠職守。參考資料A,漫畫裡的警員對犯下「隨地吐痰」的市民不違餘力,嚴正執法。然而,背後有群流氓劫匪打架劫掠,他卻置之不理視而不見。這反映警務人員欺善怕惡,未有公平對待每個市民外,向強權屈服。因此,香港警察於1974年表現懦弱。


然而,1997年香港警察有效率。參考資料B,該名中國大陸記者讚賞警務人員,因為有個「從內地來香港工作的律師」不小心「把身份證弄丟」,急忙地「向附近的警察報案」,尋求警方協助。怎不消一回「還沒有回到辨公室」就接到電話稱「證件已經找到」,這反映1997年香港警察具辦事能力,不如1974年般無能。


香港警察於1974年腐敗無能。參考資料A,漫畫稱隨地吐痰的罰款一般為15到100港元,但警務人員卻帶著「月薪千元」的警棍暴力對待手無寸鐵的市民,並喊「隨地吐痰罰款一仟」,濫用權力漠視法規,有違公職人員應守之操守。可見,香港警察於1974年以權謀私。


1997年香港警察有效率。參考資料B,該名弄失身份證的內地律師對警察表現感到滿意,隨即「掏出500元表示感謝」,感激警務人員置市民需要為首位,竭盡所能為民勝務。然而,收受私利乃違法行為,警員斷言「婉拒」,反映1997年警察公正清廉,不如1997年般貪贓枉法,故港英政府有改善管活之能力。


第二,香港政府於1967-1997年間改善社會問題。


1967年時房屋問題嚴重。就我所知,第二次世界大戰後大量戰時逃難回鄉的香港民居重返家園,但政府未有作出任何安排,他們沒有能力負擔唐樓的床位租金,只能在山邊搭建或租全簡陋的寮屋(例如鑽石山察屋區)。此等房屋欠缺設備,居民私下偷電使用,險象環生(例如1953年石硤尾大火),反映1967年時港英政府無力管治。


房屋問題到1997年大致解決。就我所知,港督麥理浩上台全面改革社會政策,例如推出「十年建屋計劃」(1972)和「居者有其屋計劃」(1978),前者要在1973至1982年的十年間,為180萬香港居民提供設備齊全、有合理居住環境的公屋。後者則以低市值和扣除地價價錢出售房屋予市民。結果,1997年房屋問題大致解決,顯示港英政府有能力改善管治。


第三,香港政府於1967-1997年間加增與市民溝通。


1967年時港府不理會港人。就我所知,政府甚少干預華人事務,採取積極不干預政策,僅任用少數華人精英為非官守議員。例如徐家祥成為首位華人政務官(1948),代表華民向政府表達意見。然而,普遍市民生活慘淡,港英卻漠不關心,結果導致1967年六七暴動。可見,1967年時政府鮮有與居民對話,彼此關係疏遠。

1997年政府廣開言路。就我所知,隨中英展開談判,港英政府增加渠道與市民溝通。例如設立區議會(1982)處理地區事務,又委任陳方安生(1992)和曾蔭權(1995)為布政司和財政司,加入管治團隊。於此情況底下,政府人民代表性增加,民意受當權者重視,不如1967年時官民相隔,反映港英政府有改善管治的能力。


 參考答案(英文版)


(a) What, in your opinion, was the main message of the cartoon in Source A? Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (3 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. This question required candidates to identify the main message of the cartoon in Source A and explain their answer with reference to Source A. Many candidates succeeded in answering the question as required. Some candidates misinterpreted the cartoon as one that primarily addressed hygiene problems of Hong Kong which had earned them no marks.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1]

L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]

Main message:

e.g.

- The police were corrupt and could note maintain law and order.


Explanation:

e.g.

- The policeman caught a person spitting but ignored the robbers around.

- The penalty of spitting in this case was unreasonably high.


Suggested Answer

The main message of the cartoon was that Hong Kong police were corrupted and irresponsible to their jobs.


First, Hong Kong police were corrupted.


From Source A, the man with the number tag “369” who represented Hong Kong policeman, caught a boy and claimed that “fine for spitting---$1000”, showing the police requested for penalty due to the improper behaviour of the boy. However, the normal penalty for spitting at the time “ranged from HK$15 to HK$100” only, reflecting the police requested for a penalty that was much higher than the one stated in law. This shows that Hong Kong police at that time abused their power for own interest.


Second, Hong Kong police impose upon those who are kind and powerless, but fear those who are severe.


From Source A, while the Hong Kong police was charging the boy who spitted, there were more serious crimes happened behind him like robbery, yet the police neglected it This implies that Hong Kong police were afraid of challenging the fierce gangster, and only suppressed the weak. Hence, they were irresponsible to their jobs.


(b) What was the attitude of the author of Source B towards the Royal Hong Kong Police? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (4 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to identify the attitude of the author of Source B towards the Royal Hong Kong Police. According to Source B, the author had a mixed attitude to the Royal Hong Kong Police. Whereas most candidates succeeded in identifying part of this mixed attitude, only a minority of candidates presented all of it. Some candidates misread the Source, thinking that the author praised the Royal Hong Kong Police for upholding a stand of political neutrality. In fact, the ensuing lines clearly revealed that the author was not happy about this.


Marking scheme

L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source, or presenting a one-sided answer. [max. 2]

L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source, and presenting a two-sided answer. [max. 4]

Attitude:

e.g.

- Mixed

- Appreciative but suspicious


Justification

e.g.

- Appreciative: the Royal Hong Kong Police were civilized and efficient.

- Suspicious: the author considered it problematic for the policemen not no concern politics.


Suggested Answer

The author of Source B showed appreciation towards the Royal Hong Kong Police.


First, the author appraised the Hong Kong police. From Source B, the author stated “the people of Hong Kong have to appreciate the work of its police force ”, this means that the general public satisfy with the performance of the Hong Kong police force. At the same time, the author even used words such as “civilised and friendly manner” to describe the Hong Kong police force. From these words, it reflected that they have a positive image and gained support from the public.


Second, Hong Kong police has high efficiency. From Source B, the Hong Kong police helped the author’s friend to find his “identity card” back within a short period of time. This reflected that the Hong Kong police have high working ability. Hence, the author is satisfied with the police force and appreciates them.


Third, Hong Kong Police were upright and uncorrupted. From Source B, after the identity card of the lawyer was found, “...the lawyer was so pleased that he offered the policeman 500 dollars as a sign of gratitude. His offer was gently declined.” This reflected Hong Kong Police were uncorrupted and served the public sincerely. Therefore, the author held a positive attitude towards the police.


At the same time, the author of Source B was disappointed and pessimistic towards the Royal Hong Kong Police.


Frist, Hong Kong police maintained neutrality against political issues. From Source B, the author mentioned “could not help but feel sad” about the “stand of political neutrality” upheld by the Hong Kong police that they “had become used to” the term “colony”, reflecting the author disagreed with the police keeping silence on political issue. This reflected Hong Kong Police were loyal to the regime, but lack of critical thinking. Hence, the author was disappointed.


Second, Hong Kong Police supported Hong Kong’s status as colony. From Source B, the author, a Mainland Chinese reporter, was patriotic. Under such circumstances, he was disappointed when Hong Kong Police were not bothered by the term “colony”, and even “become used to it.” Thus, the author stated “I could not help but feel sad about that.” This showed that Hong Kong Police were not patriotic and did not mind Hong Kong being colonized, which was contradictory to author’s stance. As a result, the author held a negative attitude.


(c) ‘The colonial government of Hong Kong demonstrated an ability to improve its governance in the period 1967-1997.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge. (8 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to discuss whether the colonial government of Hong Kong demonstrated an ability to improve its governance in the period 1967-1997. Some weak candidates did not compare the governance at different times in the period 1967-1997; rather, they merely mentioned the work the Hong Kong government did in the period. Only some able candidates showed the changes of governance of the Hong Kong government in the required period, with supporting evidence from both Sources and the candidates’ own knowledge.


Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]

L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either Sources or own knowledge only; [max. 4]

L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]

Improved:

e.g.

- The Royal Hong Kong Police had been corrupt, but its work became recognized by people within and without Hong Kong by 1997. (Sources A and B)

- The colonial government carried out comprehensive social reforms and improved the living standard of Hong Kong as a whole. (own knowledge)


Not improved:

e.g.

- The Hong Kong government could not effectively tackle the confidence crisis in the 1980s arising from the Hong Kong future question. (own knowledge)

- The Hong Kong government used to maintaining cordial working relationship with the PRC, but it failed to do so in the last decade of its colonial rule. (own knowledge)


Suggested Answer

Yes, I agree the colonial government of Hong Kong demonstrated an ability to improve its governance in the period 1967-1997.


Firstly, the colonial government was able to improve the problem of Hong Kong Police between 1967-1997.


In 1974, Hong Kong Police were ineffective in performing duties. According to Source A, the policeman only charged the boy for spitting but neglected the gangster who robbed innocent citizens. Reflecting Hong Kong Police failed to treat every citizen equally and fairly, and gave in under power (?). Hence, Hong Kong Police were ineffective in maintaining a stable and safe society in 1974.


However, in 1997, the efficiency of Hong Kong Police improved greatly. According to Source B, the author complimented Hong Kong Police for being efficient and effective. “A lawyer who came from the mainland to work in Hong Kong told me that he once reported the loss of his identity card to a policeman nearby. Before he arrived at his office, he had already received a call from the same policeman, informing him that his card had been found.” This reflected Hong Kong Police had a good performance, unlike their useless performance in 1974.


Hong Kong Police were corrupted in 1974. According to Source A, the policeman fined the boy $1000 for spitting, yet the penalty for spitting at the time normally ranged from HK$15 to HK$100. Moreover, the policeman attempted to use violence as he held a baton while the boy did not hold any dangerous weapons. This reflected abuse of authority was common in the police force, which was also a violation of law. Hence, Hong Kong Police were corrupted in 1974.


However, in 1997, Hong Kong Police were upright and uncorrupted. According to Source B, a lawyer lost his identity card in Hong Kong, fortunately, a policeman found it and “Upon picking up his card, the lawyer was so pleased that he offered the policeman 500 dollars as a sign of gratitude.” Yet, accepting that 500 dollars was illegal since it was corruption, so “His offer was gently declined.” Showing that police in 1997 were upright and the problem of corruption was significantly ameliorated. Therefore, the colonial government demonstrated an ability to improve its governance, by solving the problem of police, in the period 1967-1997.


Secondly, the Hong Kong government improved social problem between 1967-1997.


The housing problem was deplorable in 1967. According to my own knowledge, the Hong Kong government did nothing when people return after WW2. With limited money, they were forced to live in squatter shacks, which were obsolete. For instance, the Shek Kit Mei squatter area fire in 1953 directly reflected the inability of the colonial government.


The housing problems were nearly solved and much improved by 1997. According to my own knowledge, governor Maclehose introduced the Ten-year housing policy in 1972 and the Home ownership scheme in 1978. The former one benefited 180 thousand Hong Kong citizens with a decent living conditions. While the latter one sold houses to people in a discounted price. This shows that the Hong Kong government was capable in ruling.


Thirdly, the Hong Kong government strengthen communication with citizens in the year 1967 to 1997.


In 1967, the Hong Kong government ignore the Hong Kong people. According to my own knowledge, the government adopted non-intervention policy in response to Chinese affairs. At the same time, there were only a few Chinese unofficial members (Tsui Kai Cheung) in the two councils. The lack of communications eventually led to the 1967 riots.

Later till 1997, the Hong Kong government actively communicate with Chinese by strengthening consultation and local administration. According to my own knowledge, the government set up district council in 1982 to deal with local affairs. Also, it appointed Anson Chan and Donald Tsang in 1992 and 1995 as the administrative and financial secretary. This shows that the Hong Kong government listen the opinions of Chinese, and so the representativeness of the government increased. Hence, with the ability to ease the insufficient communication problem with the citizens, the colonial government shows improved governance.