【2018】國際協作丨否決權

題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)



(a) 從資料G推斷有關第二次世界大戰後國際政治的兩項特徵。試參考資料G,解釋你的答案。 (4分)

考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生從資料G推斷有關第二次世界大戰後國際政治的兩項特徵。表現出色的考生能參考資料作恰如其分的推論。表現稍遜的考生抄錄資料,惟未能扣緊第二次世界大戰後的國際政治。表現最差的考生僅胡亂抄錄資料,未能作出任何推論。


評分準則

* 兩項有效特徵及有效解釋


特徵:

例:

- 第二次世界大戰後的國際政治很受大戰戰勝國的影響 - 該否決權的分布頗能反映冷戰的發展



解釋:

例:

- 安全理事會全部五個常任理事國,都是第二次世界大戰的戰勝國。

- 除了1960年代「低盪」時期,冷戰時期大部分時間的否決次數都很多。冷戰結束後的數字亦大幅下降。


參考答案

第一,二戰後的國際政治由美國和蘇聯所主導。參考資料G,1946-2000年間聯合國否決權總使用次數為248次,而美國和蘇聯分別佔72和121次,合共193次(超過總數的2/3),顯示她倆積極參與國際政治,由兩國所把持。


第二,1961-1970年和1991-2000年間國際氣氛改善。參考資料G,1961-1970和1991-2000年間全體常任理事國使用否決權的次數分別是17和7次,合共24次(約總次數的10%),反映該時期國際社會就政治議題常達到共識,關係改善樂也融融。


(b) 從資料H指出聯合國的一項結構性問題。試參考資料H,解釋你的答案。(3分)

考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生從資料H指出聯合國的一項結構性問題。表現出色的考生能按題目要求作出恰當的討論。表現稍遜的答卷出現以下一種或以上的毛病:運用資料G而非資料H作答,因而誤以為否決權是聯合國的一項結構性問題;對於不結盟運動有誤解;誤以為民主化是結構性問題,而不知道「缺乏民主」才是問題所在。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多1分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分]



結構性問題:

例:

- 推選代表一事上欠缺民主/欠缺公平



解釋:

例:

- 德國和日本實際屬於大國,推選它們作為安全理事會新的常任事國無助於改善有關情況。

- 應推舉前殖民地作為新的成員國。


參考答案

聯合國的結構性問題是被強國(精英主義)壟斷。


聯合國由一堆強國所控制。參考資料E,被問到聯合國發展的未來,保羅・弗爾茲指是「精英主義的」。置於國際事務而言,精英泛指一線具影響力的強國。按此推斷,聯合國由一群經濟和軍事實力雄厚的國家領導,小國權益難以被看見,故結構性問題是被強國(精英主義)壟斷。


普遍推舉日本和德國成為常任理事國。參考資料E,討論到「設立兩個新的安全理事會常任理事國」事,輿論稱「德國和日本」當之無愧。原因是她們如「其他世界強國一樣,最少自這世紀初就已經存在」,即是說實力強大的國家才會被拉攏到聯合國領導層,顯示強國(精英主義)壟斷為結構性問題。



保羅・弗爾茲主張增加小國話語權。參考資料E,一方面反對日本和德國成為「安全理事會常任理事國」,集權於世界一線國家。另一方面強調「約100個前殖民地成為百了百的主權國家」,指聯合國應「民主化」,國際政治面前每個國家地位平等。可見,聯合國結構性問題是欠缺民主。


(c) 你是否同意國家利益一直以來都阻礙著國際合作?試參考資料G和H,並就你對1946-2000年間的國際合作所知,解釋你的答案。(8分)

考生表現

表現尚可。題目要求考生參考資料G及H並就個人所知討論國際利益是否一直以來都阻礙著國際合作。表現出色的考生能在答卷中充分顯示對相關課題的認知;表現稍遜的考生則誤解資料,且未能有效運用個人所知,導致失分。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]

L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多4分]

L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多8分]



阻礙:

例:

- 超級大國在聯合國內濫用否決權。(資料G)

- 眾多前殖民地未能分享應有的權利,國際政治仍然由大國支配。(資料H)

- 歐洲各國就經濟合作和統合的事宜經常不咬弘。(個人所知)



沒有阻礙:

例:

- 發展中國家組成了「不結盟運動」,以促進經濟合作,減低強國的影響力。(資料H)

- 北約和華沙公約等例子說明國家安全的關注能促進國際軍事合作。(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言成立。



第一,國家利益阻礙聯合國合作。參考資料G,1946-2000年間聯合國否決權總使用次數為248次,這表示第二次世界大戰後54年間平均每年有4-5個議案被否決。可見,戰後強國為保自身優勢而濫用否決權,阻礙國際合作。



此外,意識形態之爭阻礙國際協作。參考資料G,1946-2000年間美國和蘇聯分別在聯合國使用了72和121次否決權,成為議會反對派常客。可見,美蘇為將己國利益最大化而濫用否決權,嚴重阻礙國際合作。



第三,國家利益阻礙聯合國民主化。參考資料H,國際政治由大國所支配。例如「就設立兩個新的安全理事會常任理事國」討論,普遍觀點支持日本和德國。原因是她們「像其他世界強國一樣」,擁有雄厚的經濟和軍事實力。這反映列強為保持優勢壟斷政壇,拒絕與其他國家共享權力。



第四,國家利益成為國際合作的障礙。參考資料H,聯合國大使保羅・弗爾茲指近代國際社會是「約100個前殖民地成為了百分百的主權國家」,世界格局不再一樣。然而,一方面因強權視她們為威脅或過於弱小而拒絕合作,另一方面小國亦組織「不結盟運動」與之抗衡,這反映國家國家阻礙國際協作。



第五,國家利益阻礙經濟協作。就我所知,歐洲經濟統合一事困難重重。例如英國為保維自身優勢拒絕參與歐洲經濟共同體(1958),更甚與外七國成立歐洲自由貿易聯盟(1960)與之抗衡。可見,為保障國內企業利益,英國反對加入歐洲統合,阻礙戰後經濟合作。



第六,國家利益阻礙歐洲一體化。就我所知,歐洲聯盟(1993)成立時只得12個參與國,其推行之政策亦非全體成員國參與。例如英國因國家傳統、民族特色等理由拒絕成為申根區(《申根公約》),又反對加入歐元區使用歐羅(1999)。可見,國家因己國利益而反對與統合,阻礙歐洲一體化。



第七,國家利益阻礙環境合作。就我所知,發達國家與發展中國家就減排一事上出現分歧。例如中國認為全溫暖化是西方國家經工業革命下之成果,除非自身完成工業發展,否則不會落實減排。美國則認為國際問題人人有責,列國應遵守服從。於此情況底下,彼此競爭使《京都議定書》(1997)成效有限,未能妥善處理環境問題。



第八,國家利益阻礙人口合作。就我所知,全球人口持續上升,聯合國估計到2025年時超過80億、2050年將達到94億。儘管不少國家提倡計劃生育以控制人口,但許多發展中國家認為人力資源是經濟活動的基本,人口下降將難以刺激經濟活動,拒絕合作推廣節育觀念。可見,不少國家因經濟利潤而拒絕參與人口協作。



總括而言,國家利益於1945-2000年間阻礙國際社會就經濟、安全、環境、科技方面合作,題目所言成立。

參考答案(英文版)


(a) Infer from Source G two characteristics of international politics after the Second World War. Explain your answer with reference to Source G. (4 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to infer from Source G two characteristics of international politics after the Second World War. The able candidates made appropriate inferences with reference to the Source. The weak candidates processed the data without making them relevant to international politics after the Second World War. The weakest ones merely copied indiscriminately from the Source without making any inferences.


Marking Scheme

* Two valid characteristics plus valid explanation

Characteristics:

e.g.

- International politics after the Second World War was strongly influenced by the War’s victors

- The veto pattern reflects developments of the Cold War


Explanation:

e.g.

- All the five permanent members of the Security Council were victors of the Second World War.

- The number of vetoes remained high for most of the Cold War period, except the detente in the 1960s,. After the end of the Cold War, its number dropped drastically.



Suggested Answer

Firstly, the international politics is dominated by superpowers-US and USSR. According to source G, USA and USSR were shown to use 72 and 121 vetoes respectively, doubling and tripling that of UK. This shows that main political issues were determined and decided by the US and USSR.


Secondly, the international politics underwent tension and relaxation after WW2. According to source G, the total number of vetoes used by all permanent members in the period 1945-1960 and 1971-1990 was high, while it was much lower in the period 1961-1970 and 1991-2000. As using vetoes indicated opposition and conflicts, thus the fluctuation in the number of vetoes reflected the political situation.



(b) Identify from Source H one structural problem of the United Nations. Explain your answer with reference to Source H. (3 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to identify from Source H one structural problem of the United Nations. The able candidates gave appropriate discussion as required. The weak answers displayed one or more of the following flaws: regarding veto as a structural problem of the United Nations as they mistakenly used Source G rather than Source H; misunderstanding the Non-Aligned Movement; mistakenly regarding democratisation rather than the lack of it as a structural problem.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using the Source. [max. 1]

L2 Clear answer, with good reference to the Source in marking explanation. [max. 3]

Structural problem:

e.g.

- Undemocratic/ unfair representation



Explanation:

e.g.

- Germany and Japan were actually big powers; marking them new permanent members in the Security Council would not help improve the situation.

- Such new members should be appointed among the former colonies.


Suggested Answer

The structural problem of the United Nation was an unfair representation.



The United Nation was dominated by strong powers. According to source E, Paolo Fulci, Ambassador of Italy to the United Nations pointed out the future of the UN-----“elitist”. In other words, the UN would only be leaded by powers with robust economy and strong military, thus small nations’ interests and opinions would seldom be considered. Hence the structural problem was domination of strong powers.


(c) Do you agree that nation interest always hinders international cooperation? Explain your answer with reference to Sources G and H and using your own knowledge concerning international cooperation in the period 1946-2000. (8 marks)

Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question required candidates to discuss, with reference to Sources G and H and using their own knowledge, whether national interest always hindered international cooperation. Whereas the able candidates demonstrated understanding of the relevant knowledge in their answers, some weak answers misunderstood the Sources and ineffectively used their own knowledge, thus losing marks.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]

L2 Lack in balance, effective in using either Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]

L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 8]

Hindered:

e.g.

- Superpowers abused the veto powers in the UN. (Source G)

- The former colonies did not get the share of power they deserved; International politics was dominated by the big powers. (Source H)

- European countries had frequent disagreements on economic cooperation and integration. (own knowledge) Not hindered: e.g.

- Developing countries formed the Non-Aligned Movement to promote economic cooperation and minimise the influence of major powers. (Source H)

- NATO and Warsaw Pact were good examples to illustrate how national security concerns shaped international military cooperation. (own knowledge)


Suggested Answer

I agree that nation interest always hinders international cooperation.



First, nation interest hinders cooperation in the United Nations. According to source G, the total number of vetoes used in the period 1946-2000 was 248. This means that during 54 years after WW2, there were 4-5 policies being vetoed each year. This shows that strong powers after war abuse their veto power to maintain their advantages, hindering international cooperation.



Second, nation interest of ideological differences hinders international cooperation. According to source G, the US and USSR used 72 and 121 number of vetoes respectively in the period 1946-2000, becoming frequent objectors in the parliament. This shows that the US and USSR put their nation interest in first priority had seriously hinder international cooperation.



Third, nation interest hinders the democratization in United Nation. According to source H, international politics was dominated by big powers. For example, it was mention that “creating two new permanent members in the Security Council is that Germany and Japan...These two global powers, along with others, have existed at least since the beginning of the century”. This shows that strong countries with economic and military power were commonly supported and maintained their domination position, thus smaller nations could hardly cooperate and share power.



Fourth, nation interest hinders economic cooperation. According to my own knowledge, Britain refused to join the European Economic Community in 1958 as she wanted to maintain her own advantages, and she even formed the European Free Trade Association in 1960 to compete with EEC. This shows that nation interest of protecting domestic companies and products hinder international economic cooperation.


Fifth, nation intereset hinder economic integration. According to my own knowledge, there were only 12 members in European Union in 1993, more importantly, not all members carry out the policies of EU. For example, Britian refused to comply with the Convention de Schengen (1995) and refused to use euro in 1999 due to national traditon, culture and characteristic. This shows that nation interest hinder integration of economy.



Sixth, nation interest hinder environmental cooperation. According to my own knowledge, developed and undeveloped countires had conflicts on reduction of emissions. For example, China belives that global warming is the result of western industrialization, and therefore insists continuing its industial development and refuses to reduce emissions. On the contrary, the US belives every powers have responsibility on international problems and thus should comply with international policies. Under such circumstances, the Kyoto Protocol in 1997 has limited environmental cooperation.



Lastly, nation interest obstuct population cooperation. According to my own knowledge, UN estimated the world population to exceed 8 billion in 2025 and reached 9.4 billion in 2050. Despite some countires implemented planned reproduction, some other countries believe human resources is needed for economic activities. Under such situation, nation interest of economic profits hinder international cooperation of population control.



In conclusion, nation interest in 1945-2000 did hinder international cooperation economically, environmentally and socially.