【2017】中國丨指導原則



題目拆解




參考答案(中文版)

(a)資料C作者對美國持甚麼態度?試以資料C的一項線索,支持你的答案。(2分)



表生表現

表現非常良好。題目要求考生指出資料C作者對美國所持態度,並以資料C的一項線索支持其答案。不少考生能夠指出有關態度是正面的,並能以一項相關線索予以支持。


評分準則

* 有效態度1分,有效線索1分



態度:

例:

- 熱情、嚮往

線索:

例:

- 「美國在民主政治上對落後的中國做了一個示範的先驅……」


參考答案

資料C作者對美國持支持的正面態度。

資料C為中國共產黨於美國獨立日所發表的文章,內容指出美國是中國「民主政治」的「示範先驅」,讓中國學會「建立民主自由的中國」所需要的條件,當時中國「嚮往西方」以美國為目標,所以資料C作者對美國持支持的正面態度。


(b)假設你是一名活於1945年的中國知識分子,你會否支持中共?試參考資料D,解釋你的答案。(4分)



考生表現

表現未符預期。題目要求考生參考資料D解釋他們若是1945年的中國知識份子,會否支持中國共產黨。題目旨在測試考生對1945年中國狀況的同理心認知能力。正反面的論點皆可接受,惟考生必須清楚說明其立場,並能參考資料D解釋其答案。只有表現最佳的考生能清楚說明立場、作出有效討論,並申述原因。不少答卷內容籠統。部分表現稍遜的答卷未能以資料D為據作答。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]

L2 答案清晰,能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]



例:

- 知識分子會支持中共,因為它顯示出一個開明、民主、全心抗日的政黨形象(「立即宣布廢止國民黨一黨專政」、「沒有人民的自由,就沒有真正民選的國民大會」)

參考答案

我會支持中共。

資料D為毛澤東作的報告,他指出「必須在全國範圍內實行民主改革」,並且要廢除「一黨專政」,因其「沒有什麼好處」,反映中共拒絕專制統治,並將會賦權予民眾。作為知識份子一直留意國內政治發展,進行民主改革並建立具人民代表性的中國政府是近30年來的希望,故我將會支持中共。

同時,毛澤東於資料D中指出他將「宣佈廢止國民黨一黨專政」,改而建立一個「聯合組成的中央政府」(分別包括國民黨、共產黨和民主同盟等),從而「恢復民族團結」,使中國富強成為現代化國家。身份知識份子,見證著中國近10年來的政局動盪,戰爭不斷,毛澤東所倡議的見解確實吸引著一眾飽歷戰爭禍害的知識份子,故我將支持共產黨。

最後,毛澤東指出當「中國人」的「自由愈多」,中國「有組織的民主力量」就會變得「愈多」,繼續一個「統一」而且「聯合政府」就有更大的機會「成立」。作為知識份子當然明白團結就是力量的道理,而毛澤東的主張正切合一眾知識份子的願景,故我將支持中國共產黨。


(c)「中共於1949年掌權後,其指導原則較掌權前出現了巨變。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料C及D,並就你對中國直至1978年的發展所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)



考生表現

表現平平。題目要求考生比較1949年前後中共的指導原則,旨在測試考生的轉變與延續概念以及運用資料與個人所知的能力。只有表現最出色的考生能夠妥善比較中共的指導原則,指出1949年前後的轉變及/或延續。不少考生在答案中未能清楚分辨資料和個人所知兩部分,因而失分。部分表現稍遜的考生未能有效比較1949年前後的中國。


評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]

L2 欠缺均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多4分]

L3 答案合理且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知。 [最多7分]


巨變:

例:

- 中日戰爭時期,中共對美國表現友好(資料C);1949年之後,中國實施反帝政策,美國由於是帝國主義陣營頭子,遂成為了敵人。(個人所知)

沒有巨變:

例:

- 中共提倡由各黨派組成聯合政府(資料D),該想法於1949年通過中國人民政治協商會議和非中共民主人士的政治參與得以實現,直至1957年反右運動。(個人所知)


參考答案

題目所言確能成立。

第一,先從外交方面的指導原則討論。

資料C的文章為美國獨立日所出版,並指1949年掌權前的中共「嚮往西方」,希望以美國等西方國家作為目標,以此為「示範」,從而打造中國成為一個「民主自由」的現代化國家,顯示中共於1949年掌權前對西方持歡迎態度,願意彼此交流學習。

然而,就我所知中共於1949年掌權後嚴重左傾並反外國,就如1966-1976年的文化大革命中,紅衛兵大力抨擊並批判外國思想,更一度指其為「走資派」加以譴責,明顯與1949年中共掌權前歡迎外國態度有別,轉變為排外,故實為巨變。

第二,現從教育方面的指導原則剖析。

同時,資料C的文章指中國要結合「民主與科學」的知識,進行深層次的現代化改革,好使中國人成為「公正、誠實的民族和人民」,積極改善中國形象,反映中共於1949年掌權前重視科學發展,認為其為提升國力的基礎。

然而,就我所知中共於掌權後忽視科學或專業知識,例如第二個五年計劃(1957)的大躍進運動中提倡工業大躍進,主張「土法煉鋼」,於全國總共築起60萬座土高爐,結果煉出約200多萬廢鐵,可見中共由掌權前的重視科學精神轉變為掌權的忽視專業知識,實為巨變。

第三,將會從政治方面的指導原則分析。

資料D為毛澤東於戰勝前的報告,他認為「必須在全國範內實行民主改革」,建立一個「民主的聯合政府」(包括國民黨、共產黨和民主同盟),繼而再「發布一個民主的施政綱領」,建立一個高人民代表性的中國政府,落實政治現代化。

不過,就我所知,當共產黨於1949年掌握後,一方面國民黨敗走至台灣,聯合政府基本上組不成;另一方面,毛澤東於建國後發布「共同綱領」,主張「人民民主專政」原則,確立共產黨一黨專政,與1949年前民主改革的指導方針大相逕庭,實為巨變。

第四,從政制方面的指導原則析論。

最後,毛澤東於資料D主張「廢止一黨專政」,因其「沒有什麼好處」,認為一黨專政將會阻礙中國發展成為強國,因而對一黨專政作出抨擊。反而他認為「自由愈多」,「有組織的民主力量」才會增強,可見於1949年掌權前中共反對一黨專政。

然而,就我所知,當中共於1949年從國共內戰中勝出並成立中華人民共和國開始,毛澤東頒布《共同綱領》,確立中國共產黨成為中國執政黨,情況近似於一黨專政。可見中共於1949年掌權前以強烈反對一黨專政,尊重個人自由等為指導原則,但於1949年後卻把中國共產黨打造成一黨專政,實為巨變。



因此,題目所言確能成立。



參考答案(英文版)


(a) What was the attitude of the author of Source C towards the USA? Support your answer with one clue from Source C. (2 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was very good. This question required candidates to point out the attitude of the author of Source C towards the USA and support the answer with one clue from Source C. Many candidates were able to point out that the attitude was positive and support the answer with relevant clue.



Marking Schemes

* One mark for valid attitude and one mark for valid clue



Attitude:

e.g.

- Affectionate, longing



Clue:

e.g.

- ‘The United States has been a pioneer model of democratic politics for backward China…’


Suggested Answer

The author of Source C held positive attitude towards the USA.

From Source C, it was an article published on the Independence Day of the USA by the Chinese Communist Party. It pointed out that the United States had been “a pioneer model of democratic politics”, allowing China to learn how to establish “a democratic and free China”. At the time, China adopted “yearn for the West” and the USA was its role model. Thus, the author held positive attitude towards the USA.



(b) If you were a Chinese intellectual in 1945, would you support the CCP? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (4 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was below expectations. This question required candidates to explain, with reference to Source D, whether they would have supported the Chinese Communist Party if they had been Chinese intellectuals in 1945. This question aimed to test the candidates’ empathetic understanding of the conditions in China in 1945. Both positive and negative answers were acceptable, provided the candidates could state their standpoint clearly and substantiate their answers with reference to Source D. Only the best candidates stated their standpoint clearly, and discussed the issue effectively, with good substantiation. Many answers were overgeneralized. Some weaker answers did not refer to Source D.


Marking Schemes

L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 2]

L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 4]



e.g.

- Intellectuals would support the CCP, which presented itself as party of openness, democracy and fighting wholeheartedly against Japan. (‘Let’s immediately proclaim the abolition of the Kuomintang’s one-party dictatorship’, ‘Without people’s freedom, there will be no national assembly that is truly elected by the people.’)


** Given the content of the Source, candidates in general will hold a positive view. However, marks will be awarded to answers that, making full use of the Source, hold an opposite view and are presented logically.



Suggested Answer

Yes, I would support the CCP.

From Source D, it was a political report delivered by Mao Zedong. He pointed out that it was a must to “carry out democratic reforms across the whole country” and “abolish the one-party dictatorship”, as it had no “good thing”. It reflected that CCP refused dictatorship and pledged to share power to its people. As a Chinese intellectual, I had been paying attention to the political development of the country. In the past 30 years, there was absence of representative government. It was a blessing to undergo political reform and set up a representative government. Thus, I would support the CCP.

From Source D, Mao Zedong said he would “abolish the one-party dictatorship of the Kuomintang” and “establish a democratic coalition government” (including the Kuomintang, the CCP, the Democratic League). By “restoring national unity”, China could be grown into a richer, stronger and more modernized country. As a Chinese intellectual, I witnessed instability in the past 10 years. The saying of Mao Zedong was appealing to the intellectuals who suffered from wars. Thus, I would support the CCP.

From Source D, “the more freedom that the Chinese people win, the stronger are the organized democratic forces, the more likely will it be for a united provisional coalition government to be established”. As a Chinese intellectual, I understood “unity is strength”. What Mao advocated fit the vision of the intellectuals. Thus, I would support the CCP.



(c) ‘After it came to power in 1949, the guiding principles of the CCP demonstrated drastic changes when compared to those it held before coming to power.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D, and using you own knowledge of the development of China up to 1978. (7 marks)



Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. This question tested the candidates’ understanding of change and continuity and their ability to use sources and their own knowledge, and required them to compare the guiding principles of the CCP before and after 1949. Only the best candidates made a good comparison of the guiding principles of the CCP and pointed out change and/or continuity before and after 1949. Many candidates did not clearly distinguish in their answer which facts came from the sources and which from their own knowledge, which cost them marks. Some weaker candidates did not draw effective comparisons with China after 1949.


Marking Schemes

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]

L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]

L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 7]


Drastic changes:

e.g.

- During the Sino-Japanese War, the CCP gave friendly gestures to the USA (Source C); after 1949, under the anti-imperialistic policy, America became an enemy as it was the ringleader of imperialism. (own knowledge)


No drastic changes:

e.g.

- The CCP promoted a democratic coalition government formed by various political parties (Source D) and in 1949 it was realized through the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and political participation by non-CCP democrats, until the Anti-Rightist Movement in 1957. (own knowledge).


Suggested Answer

Yes, the claim is valid.

First, it will be explained in terms of diplomacy.

From Source C, it was an article published for the Independence Day of the USA. It pointed out that before the CCP came to power in 1949, it adopted “yearn for the West”. The United States has been “a pioneer model of democratic politics”, allowing China to learn how to establish “a democratic and free China”. It implied that before the CCP came to power in 1949, it held positive attitude towards the West and showed willingness to exchange and learn.

From my own knowledge, after the CCP came to power in 1949, its ruling was anti-foreign in nature. In Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), the Red Guard put western ideas under fire, and even condemned “capitalist roaders”. It showed a big contrast with the welcoming attitude towards the West before 1949, which was a drastic change.

Second, it will be explained in terms of education.

From Source C, China will undergo modernization with the tie of “democracy and science”, bringing “fair and honest nations and people”, thus improving China’s international image. It reflected that before 1949 the CCP emphasized professional knowledge and science development, which were perceived to be the key inks in enhancing its national strength.

From my own knowledge, the CCP neglected science development after it came to power in 1949. For example, in the Great Leap Forward (1957), it focused on melting steel and iron. There were 600,000 backyard fullerenes, producing 2,000,000 scrap iron in total. It showed that the CCP ignored professional knowledge after it came to power in 1949, which was a drastic change.

Third, it will be explained in terms of politics.

From Source D, on the eve of the victory, Mao Zedong said that it was a must to “carry out democratic reforms across the whole country” and “establish a democratic coalition government” (including the Kuomintang, the CCP, the Democratic League). With a “democratic policy agenda”, a representative Chinese government will be established, which paved China to political modernization.

From my own knowledge, after the CCP came to power in 1949, Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan. Coalition government could not be formed. On the other hand, Mao Zedong published “Common Chinese People’s Political Agenda” and adopted “people’s democratic dictatorship” as core principle. With one-party dictatorship, it depicted a sharp contrast with the guiding principle of the CCP before 1949. There was a drastic change.

Last, it will be explained in terms of institution.

From Source D, Mao Zedong contended to “abolish one-party dictatorship” as it had no “good thing” but hindered China to grow as a strong country. He believed that “more freedom the Chinese people win, the stronger are the organized democratic forces”. Before the CCP came to power in 1949, it resisted one-party dictatorship.

From my own knowledge, after the CCP won the Chinese Civil War and established the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong published “Common Chinese People’s Political Agenda”. Mao Zedong ensured the CCP was the only ruling party, which was a kind of one-party dictatorship. Before it came to power, the CCP showed strong opposition towards one-party dictatorship and promised to respect personal freedom. After it came to power in 1949, the CCP adopted one-part dictatorship, which was a drastic change.

Thus, yes, the claim is valid.