L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料作答。 [最多2分]
L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作有效解釋。 [最多4分]
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分]
L2 欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分]
L3 答案合理且均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多7分]
(a) What was the attitude of the author of Source C towards the USA? Support your answer with one clue from Source C. (2 marks)
Performance was very good. This question required candidates to point out the attitude of the author of Source C towards the USA and support the answer with one clue from Source C. Many candidates were able to point out that the attitude was positive and support the answer with relevant clue.
* One mark for valid attitude and one mark for valid clue
- Affectionate, longing
- ‘The United States has been a pioneer model of democratic politics for backward China…’
The author of Source C held positive attitude towards the USA.
From Source C, it was an article published on the Independence Day of the USA by the Chinese Communist Party. It pointed out that the United States had been “a pioneer model of democratic politics”, allowing China to learn how to establish “a democratic and free China”. At the time, China adopted “yearn for the West” and the USA was its role model. Thus, the author held positive attitude towards the USA.
(b) If you were a Chinese intellectual in 1945, would you support the CCP? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (4 marks)
Performance was below expectations. This question required candidates to explain, with reference to Source D, whether they would have supported the Chinese Communist Party if they had been Chinese intellectuals in 1945. This question aimed to test the candidates’ empathetic understanding of the conditions in China in 1945. Both positive and negative answers were acceptable, provided the candidates could state their standpoint clearly and substantiate their answers with reference to Source D. Only the best candidates stated their standpoint clearly, and discussed the issue effectively, with good substantiation. Many answers were overgeneralized. Some weaker answers did not refer to Source D.
L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 2]
L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 4]
- Intellectuals would support the CCP, which presented itself as party of openness, democracy and fighting wholeheartedly against Japan. (‘Let’s immediately proclaim the abolition of the Kuomintang’s one-party dictatorship’, ‘Without people’s freedom, there will be no national assembly that is truly elected by the people.’)
** Given the content of the Source, candidates in general will hold a positive view. However, marks will be awarded to answers that, making full use of the Source, hold an opposite view and are presented logically.
Yes, I would support the CCP.
From Source D, it was a political report delivered by Mao Zedong. He pointed out that it was a must to “carry out democratic reforms across the whole country” and “abolish the one-party dictatorship”, as it had no “good thing”. It reflected that CCP refused dictatorship and pledged to share power to its people. As a Chinese intellectual, I had been paying attention to the political development of the country. In the past 30 years, there was absence of representative government. It was a blessing to undergo political reform and set up a representative government. Thus, I would support the CCP.
From Source D, Mao Zedong said he would “abolish the one-party dictatorship of the Kuomintang” and “establish a democratic coalition government” (including the Kuomintang, the CCP, the Democratic League). By “restoring national unity”, China could be grown into a richer, stronger and more modernized country. As a Chinese intellectual, I witnessed instability in the past 10 years. The saying of Mao Zedong was appealing to the intellectuals who suffered from wars. Thus, I would support the CCP.
From Source D, “the more freedom that the Chinese people win, the stronger are the organized democratic forces, the more likely will it be for a united provisional coalition government to be established”. As a Chinese intellectual, I understood “unity is strength”. What Mao advocated fit the vision of the intellectuals. Thus, I would support the CCP.
(c) ‘After it came to power in 1949, the guiding principles of the CCP demonstrated drastic changes when compared to those it held before coming to power.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D, and using you own knowledge of the development of China up to 1978. (7 marks)
Performance was fair. This question tested the candidates’ understanding of change and continuity and their ability to use sources and their own knowledge, and required them to compare the guiding principles of the CCP before and after 1949. Only the best candidates made a good comparison of the guiding principles of the CCP and pointed out change and/or continuity before and after 1949. Many candidates did not clearly distinguish in their answer which facts came from the sources and which from their own knowledge, which cost them marks. Some weaker candidates did not draw effective comparisons with China after 1949.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2]
L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only. [max. 4]
L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 7]
- During the Sino-Japanese War, the CCP gave friendly gestures to the USA (Source C); after 1949, under the anti-imperialistic policy, America became an enemy as it was the ringleader of imperialism. (own knowledge)
No drastic changes:
- The CCP promoted a democratic coalition government formed by various political parties (Source D) and in 1949 it was realized through the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and political participation by non-CCP democrats, until the Anti-Rightist Movement in 1957. (own knowledge).
Yes, the claim is valid.
First, it will be explained in terms of diplomacy.
From Source C, it was an article published for the Independence Day of the USA. It pointed out that before the CCP came to power in 1949, it adopted “yearn for the West”. The United States has been “a pioneer model of democratic politics”, allowing China to learn how to establish “a democratic and free China”. It implied that before the CCP came to power in 1949, it held positive attitude towards the West and showed willingness to exchange and learn.
From my own knowledge, after the CCP came to power in 1949, its ruling was anti-foreign in nature. In Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), the Red Guard put western ideas under fire, and even condemned “capitalist roaders”. It showed a big contrast with the welcoming attitude towards the West before 1949, which was a drastic change.
Second, it will be explained in terms of education.
From Source C, China will undergo modernization with the tie of “democracy and science”, bringing “fair and honest nations and people”, thus improving China’s international image. It reflected that before 1949 the CCP emphasized professional knowledge and science development, which were perceived to be the key inks in enhancing its national strength.
From my own knowledge, the CCP neglected science development after it came to power in 1949. For example, in the Great Leap Forward (1957), it focused on melting steel and iron. There were 600,000 backyard fullerenes, producing 2,000,000 scrap iron in total. It showed that the CCP ignored professional knowledge after it came to power in 1949, which was a drastic change.
Third, it will be explained in terms of politics.
From Source D, on the eve of the victory, Mao Zedong said that it was a must to “carry out democratic reforms across the whole country” and “establish a democratic coalition government” (including the Kuomintang, the CCP, the Democratic League). With a “democratic policy agenda”, a representative Chinese government will be established, which paved China to political modernization.
From my own knowledge, after the CCP came to power in 1949, Kuomintang retreated to Taiwan. Coalition government could not be formed. On the other hand, Mao Zedong published “Common Chinese People’s Political Agenda” and adopted “people’s democratic dictatorship” as core principle. With one-party dictatorship, it depicted a sharp contrast with the guiding principle of the CCP before 1949. There was a drastic change.
Last, it will be explained in terms of institution.
From Source D, Mao Zedong contended to “abolish one-party dictatorship” as it had no “good thing” but hindered China to grow as a strong country. He believed that “more freedom the Chinese people win, the stronger are the organized democratic forces”. Before the CCP came to power in 1949, it resisted one-party dictatorship.
From my own knowledge, after the CCP won the Chinese Civil War and established the People’s Republic of China, Mao Zedong published “Common Chinese People’s Political Agenda”. Mao Zedong ensured the CCP was the only ruling party, which was a kind of one-party dictatorship. Before it came to power, the CCP showed strong opposition towards one-party dictatorship and promised to respect personal freedom. After it came to power in 1949, the CCP adopted one-part dictatorship, which was a drastic change.
Thus, yes, the claim is valid.