L1 解釋含混，未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 答案清晰，能參考資料作出有效解釋。 [最多3分] 例︰ - 日本成為強國（「振興新生的日本」） - 建設高科技的新日本（「為這個世代和人們帶來電器化的幸福」）
L1 僅運用資料或有效運用一些個人所知，及/ 論據不足。 [最多3分] L2 論述欠均衡，僅能有效運用個人所知或資料加上一些個人所知作答。 [最多5分] L3 論述合理均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知作答。 [最多8分] 內部因素︰ 例︰ - 松下公司管理所反映的集體精神。（資料E） - 民族主義和武士道有利於經濟發展。（個人所知） 外部因素︰ 例︰ - 美國的經濟支援，例如盟軍佔領日本時期。（個人所知） - 有利的國際環境。（個人所知）
題目所言確能成立。 先討論內部因素如何影響日本的經濟發展。 第一，日本民族特質有利於日本經濟發展。參考資料E，《與時並進》指「為了振興新生的日本」，日本人「土氣高昂地再次集合在一起」，共同承擔國家經濟發展的責任，並「拼命地工作」終造成「充滿著笑容的今天」，經濟發展蓬勃，故實有賴日人團結合作（內在因素）所影響。 第二，日本傳統思想有利於日本經濟發展。參考資料E，松下電器以「為這個世代和人們帶來電器化的幸福」為目標，並通過「堅守傳統的崇高理想」為方法，鼓勵日人積極發奮促進經濟，可見經濟發展實受日人傳統精神（內在因素）所影響。 第三，日本合作精神有於日本經濟發展。參考資料E，日本人相信「團結就是力量」，互相合作並「一路上聚沙成塔」，終為日本帶來「躍進的時代」，有利於戰後經濟發展，確實受國民（內在因素）所影響。 第四，日本政府的經濟政策有利於日本經濟發展。就我所知，日本政府以「貿易立國」、「出口第一」為國策，為推動國家經濟發展更推行「經濟自立五年計劃」（1955）等，有利工商業中、小企發展，可見日本經濟發展受日本政府政策（內在因素）所影響。 第五，日本政府的教育政策有利於日本經濟發展。就我所知，日本政府著重教育發展，先後增加開支和頒布《理科教育振興法》（1953）等，增加理科學額以培訓專業人材，由勞動密集型工業轉變成知識技術型工業，刺激經濟發展，的確受內在因素所影響。 第六，日本政府的外交政策有利於日本經濟發展。就我所知，戰後日本與多個國家建立緊密的貿易關係，如加入國際貨幣基金組織和世界銀行（1952），為日本帶來龐大的出口市場，有利於經濟發展。因此，日本經濟發展受到內在因素所影響。 然而，亦有其他因素導致日本經濟發展，但其重要性較低。 第一，冷戰的有利形勢也有助於日本經濟發展，如韓戰爆發（1950-1953）為日本帶來龐大的軍需品市場，從而帶動了軍事及相關工業的發展，故冷戰形勢也有助於日本經濟發展。 然而，冷戰形勢僅屬客觀環境，並不會直接為日本帶來利益。於因果關係而言，正因為日本政府政策恰當，轉投軍事工產生產，方促進日本於冷戰期間的經濟發展，故內在因素更為重要。 第二，盟總政府亦有助於日本經濟發展，如推行《禁止壟斷法》、《經濟發展九原則》、《農業改革法》等經濟法規，不但瓦解原有財閥勢力，而且讓農民有地可耕，中、小企業受到保障，讓日本經驗急速發展。 然而，盟總政府佔領只有七年（1945－1952），當時所頒布的法案旨在復甦日本經濟，影響力有限。相反，正因為盟軍撤出後日本政府政策得宜，再加上日人上下一心團結發展經濟，才導致1950－1980年間經濟豐厚成果，所以內在因素更為重要。 因此，題目所言確能立。
(a) What was Matsushita’s dream for Japan? Explain your answer with one relevant clue from Source E. (3 marks)
Performance was fair. This question required candidates to identify from Source E Matsushita’s dream for Japan. Whereas the best candidates read the question properly and provided appropriate answers, some misread the question and wrote on the dreams of Matsushita in general, not specifically those for Japan. Answers like this were not awarded any marks.
L1 Vague explanation and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer with effective explanation with reference to the Source. [max. 3]
- To make Japan a strong country (‘revitalize the new Japan’) - to build a new Japan with advanced technology (‘Bringing the happiness of using electric devices to this generation and its people’)
Matsushita’s dream for Japan was to make Japan flourish and become a strong country. Source E shows that the employees of Matsushita Electric Industrial Company Limited “work to exhaustion” to “ revitalize the new Japan”, they worked hard for Japan’s technological advancement and aimed to “bring the happiness of using electric devices to his generation and its people”, so as to improve standard of living of Japanese people and to make Japan a strong and powerful country.
(b) ‘Japan’s economic development after the Second World War up to the 1980s was primarily influenced by internal factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Source E and using your own knowledge. (Source: 3 marks; own knowledge: 5 marks)
Performance was fair. The question required candidates to comment on the validity of the statement ‘Japan economic development after the Second World War up to the 1980s was primarily influenced by internal factors’ with reference to Source E and using their own knowledge. Only the best candidates discussed both internal and external factors before evaluating which group of factors had the larger impact on Japan’s economic development after the Second World War. Weak candidates merely presented their arguments without good substantiation, and/ or handled either internal or external factors only.
L1 Use of Source only or effective use of some own knowledge only, and/ or weak in arguments. [max. 3] L2 Unbalanced arguments with effective use of own knowledge only or good use of Source with some own knowledge. [max. 5] L3 Sound and balanced arguments with effective use of both Source and own knowledge. [max. 8]
Internal factors: e.g.
- Collective spirit as reflected in Matsushita’s company management. (Source C) - Nationalism and bushido facilitated economic development. (own knowledge) External factors: e.g.
- Economic aids and support from the USA, such as during the Allied Occupation. (own knowledge) - Favorable international circumstances. (own knowledge)
I agree with the statement. Internal factors will first be discussed. First of all, the characteristics of the Japanese people was beneficial to its economic development. According to source E, Moving Forward with Time was to “revitalize the new Japan”, Japanese people would “gather together again” with “high morale”, they were willing to take up responsibility of economic development of Japan. They also “work(ed) to exhaustion” to achieve “today with heartening smiles”, indicating that the economic achievement was caused by internal factor, which is unity of Japanese people. Second, traditional Japanese thought were also beneficial to its economic development. According to source E, Matsushita’s aim was to “bring the happiness of using electric devices to his generation and its people”, they upheld the “traditional noble aspirations” to encourage Japanese people to strive for economic growth. Traditional Japanese thought is another internal factor that influenced economic development in Japan. Third, collective spirit of Japanese people also brought about economic growth. According to source E, Japanese people believed that “unity is strength” which could “turn sand into tower” and to bring about “the age of leaping forward”. Collective spirit of Japanese people was therefore an internal factor that sped up their economic development after WWII. Forth, economic policies set out by Japanese government were also beneficial to its economic development. Japanese government applied “trade to establish country” and “export as priority” as national policies, it even initiated a Five Year Plan for Economic Independence in 1955, promoting development of middle and small enterprises, showing that economic achievement was caused by internal factor. Fifth, Japanese government set out educational policies which prompted economic development . Japanese government emphasized educational development, budget on education was increased and a law on revitalization of scientific subjects was issued in 1953. The government increased quotas in scientific subjects to cultivate professionals, attempting to convert industrial economy into technological economy and stimulate economic growth. Economic development in Japan was therefore influenced by internal factor. Sixth, diplomatic policies of Japan was also beneficial to its economic development. Japan established close trading relationship with other countries after WWII, it joined International Monetary Fund and World Bank in 1952, expanding Japan’s export market. As a result Japan’s post-war economic development was caused by internal factor. Although other external factors also gave rise to Japan’s economic development, they were of less importance. First, the situation of Cold War prompted Japan’s economic development, for instance, the outbreak of Korean War in 1950-53 brought about a huge market of military supplies to Japan, which stimulated development of military and related heavy industries, showing that external factor, such as Cold War, promoted Japan’s economic development. Nevertheless, Cold War only acted as an objective environment, it did not directly bring economic benefits to Japan. In terms of causal relationship, it was Japanese government’s appropriate policy of developing military industry that gave rise to Japan’s economic development during Cold War, therefore internal factors were more important. Second, Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) also promoted Japanese economic development, they issued Anti-Monopoly Law, Nine Principles of Economic Development and Agricultural Reform Law, not only to disintegrate Japanese zaibatsu, but also to allocate lands for farmers and to protect middle and small enterprises, promoting economic development in post-war Japan. However, occupation of Japan by SCAP only lasted for 7 years from 1945 to 1952, the policies issued by SCAP aimed to help Japan in post-war economic recovery, the policies had limited influence. On the contrary, it was because of the end of occupation of SCAP and the unity of Japanese people in economic development that brought about economic growth from 1950 to 1980, indicating that internal factors were more important. All in all, I agree with the statement that Japan’s economic development after the Second World War was primarily influenced by internal factors, supported by the above reasons.