【2014】國際協作丨教科文組織



題目拆解



參考答案(中文版)

(a) 1954年在哪方面是教科文組織的歷史轉捩點?試參考資料H,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現未如理想。題目要求考生解釋1954年在哪方面是教科文組織歷史的一個轉捩點。大部分考生能夠從資料援引相關內容作答,但很多能夠比較該年前後的情況以說明有關轉變。

評分準則

轉捩點(1分)︰ 例︰ - 意識形態上,教科文組織變得寬容 - 成員組成上,蘇聯於1954年成為成員國。 解釋︰ L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料。 [最多1分] L2 答案清晰,能有效運用資料。 [最多2分] 例︰ - 該年之前,東西方科學家根本無法通過教科文組織進行合作。該年之後,蘇聯扮演了更積極的角色(例如一名俄羅斯人獲委為某部主管),繼而出現了一個「和平競賽」的年代。

參考答案

第一,1954年實為教科文組織成員國組成方面的轉捩點。 資料H指出1954年前「中華人民共和國不獲接納為成員國」,而組織更「偏辟西方」,然而自1954冷戰逐漸緩和下,「蘇聯終於加入為成員國」外,更有個「俄羅斯人獲委任為自然科學部的主管」,顯示教科文組織於1954年後成員國組成更多元化,具有東西國家學者參與,實為成員國組成方面的轉捩點。 第二,1954年亦為教科文組織於意識形態上的轉捩點。 資料H反映1954年前教科文組織拒絕「東西方知識分子交流的重要會議」舉行,但自1954年冷戰緩和,蘇聯成為「成員國」之一後,意識形態的影響力逐步下降,更導致「南北極探索之行」的舉行,反映1954年實為教科文組織於意識形態上的轉捩點。

(b)就影響1945-2000年間的國際合作而言,意識形態因素是否最重要的因素?試參考資料H,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現未如理想。題目要求考生透過不同因素的比較,討論1945-2000年間意識形態因素是否影響國際合作最重要的因素。很多答案含以下一種或以上的毛病︰未能清楚區分資料和個人所知;答案片面討論意識形態因素對國際合作的影響,通常是討論其負面影響;討論欠缺史實支持;未能與其他因素比較以斷定意識形態因素的相對重要性。只有表現最佳的考生能夠符合題目的要求,同時參考資料及個人所知作答。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料或個人所知。 [最多4分] L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料及個人所知。 [最多7分] 意識形態因素︰ 例︰ - 冷戰主要緣於意識形態衝突,它極大地阻礙了教科文組織的工作。(資料H) - 冷戰結束後,前共產主義各國加入北約及歐洲。這反映出意識形態是因合作的阻礙。(個人所知) 其他因素︰ 例︰ - 雖然意識形態存在分歧,但實務主義令各國仍能合作。蘇聯在教科文組織扮演更積極角色,反映了赫魯曉夫的「和平共存」思想。(資料H和個人所知) - 歐洲煠鐵共同體由「內六國」組成,英國與之保持距離。這反映出國家利益可能較意識形態更為重要。(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言確能成立。 資料H指出教科文組織的合作受到意識形態所影響。因為「該組織仍偏西方」,使之「中華人民共和國不獲接納為成員國」,結果「一個供東西方知識分子交流的重要會議」亦未能舉行,科學研究發展緩慢,大力阻礙國際協作。 就我所知,意識形態影響的人口與資源合作。部份國家相信生育將帶來祝福,孩子愈多愈好,如1990年平均每個伊朗婦女產下5.3個小孩,出生率持續上升,阻礙國際社會在人口與資源方面的合作。 其次,意識形態影響的科技方面合作。就我所知,以核科技為例,由於北韓對資本主義的猜忌,因而大力研發核武,對國際和平使用核能的合作造成嚴重阻礙。 然而,仍有其他因素影響國際合作,但其重要性不及意識形態。 國家利益也阻礙國際協作。資料H指「強國都將大量資源投放於研究以及由國家統籌的發展項目」,好使研究成果一國獨享,導致「大部份研究未能在國際間交流」,更進一步「削弱了教科文組織等國際組織的角色」,顯示國家利益的考慮也阻礙國際協作。 就我所知,國家利益導致經濟方面的國際合作。西歐國家為推動經濟發展,一度合作組成經濟共同體(1967),開放市場進行貿易以賺取利潤,反映國家利益影響著國際協作。 然而,意識形態比利益因素更為重要。正因為意識形態是國家最重要資本,列強深怕國際協作損害傳統、制度、信念、特色等,因此她們寧願保護國家意識形態也不願進行國際合作,以免因小失大,顯然意識形態比國家利益重要。 總括而言,題目所言確能成立。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) In what way was the year 1954 a turning point in the history of UNESCO? Explain your answer with reference to Source H. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was below average. This question required candidates to explain the way in which the year 1954 was a turning point in the history of UNESCO. Most candidates were able to cite relevant materials from the Source, but not many of them succeeded in contrasting the situations before and after the year and identifying the change.

Marking scheme

Turning point [1 mark] : e.g.

- ideologically, the UNESCI became more tolerant. - in terms of membership, the USSR became a member state in 1954 Explanation: L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear answer and effective use of the Source. [max. 2] e.g.

- Before that, cooperation between Eastern and Western scientists through UNESCO was actually impossible. After that, the USSR played a more active role (such as the appointment of a Russian as Director of a department), followed by an era of ‘peaceful competition’.

Suggested answer

Firstly, in terms of the composition of the UNESCO, the year 1954 was a turning point in the history of UNESCO. According to Source H, before 1954, “membership was denied to the People’s Republic of China” and “the UNESCO maintained a bias towards the West”. However, since the Cold War was eased in 1954, “the USSR finally became a Member State” and “a Russian was appointed as Director of Natural Sciences Department”, showing that the composition of the UNESCO had become more diversified after 1954 as both Western and Eastern scholars participated in the organization. Therefore, year 1954 was a turning point in terms of the composition of the UNESCO. Secondly, in term of ideologies, the year 1954 was a turning point in the history of UNESCO. According to Source H, before 1954, “a major conference between Eastern and Western intellectuals was refused” by the UNESCO. However, since the Cold War was eased in 1954 and the USSR became a member of the UNESCO, the influence of ideologies had gradually decreased. “Polar expeditions” was even organized by the UNESCO, reflecting that year 1954 was a turning point in the history of UNESCO in term of ideologies.

(b) Was ideological factor the most important factor that had affected international cooperation in the period 1945-2000? Explain your answer with reference to Source H, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was below average. This question required candidates to discuss whether ideological factors were the most important ones that had affected international cooperation in the period 1945-2000, by comparing it with other factors. Many answers displayed one or more of the following flaws: failing to clearly differentiate Source from own knowledge; giving a one-sided discussion of the impact of ideology on international cooperation, in most cases biased towards its negative aspect; presenting unsubstantiated discussions; failing to evaluate the relative importance of the ideological factor by comparing it with other factors. Only the best candidates fulfilled the requirements of the question by referring to both the Source and their own knowledge.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Source or own knowledge only. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Source and own knowledge. [max. 7]


Ideological factor: e.g.

- The Cold War, which was primarily due to ideological conflicts, substantially hampered the work of UNESCO. (Source H) - After the Cold War, ex-communist states were admitted to the NATO and European Union. This reflected that ideology was a hindrance to international cooperation. (own knowledge) Other factors: e.g.

- Pragmatism led to cooperation despite ideological difference. The more active role of the USSR in YNESCI reflected Khrushchev’s ‘peaceful co-existence’. (Source H and own knowledge) - The European Coal and Steel Community was formed by the ‘inner six’, and Britain chose to keep a distance from it. This reflected that national interest could be more important than ideology (own knowledge).

Suggested answer

Ideological factor was the most important factor. According to Source H, the cooperation of the UNESCO was influenced by ideologies. As “the UNESCO maintained a bias towards the West”, “membership was denied to the People’s Republic of China”. As a result, “A major conference between Eastern and Western intellectuals was refused”. It hindered the development of scientific research as well as international cooperation. According to my own knowledge, ideologies affected the international cooperation in population control and resources distribution. In some countries, people believe that giving birth to children could bring blessings to them. For example, in 1990, every Iranian woman gave birth to 5.3 children in average. Thus, the birth rate continued to rise and hindered the international cooperation in population control and resources distribution. Moreover, ideologies affected the international cooperation in technology. According to my own knowledge, taking nuclear technology as an example, North Korean spared no efforts to develop nuclear weapon due to its suspicion of capitalism. It seriously undermined the international cooperation in the usage of nuclear weapons. However, there were also other factors which affected international cooperation. But they were less important than the ideological factor. National interests also hindered international cooperation. According to Source H, “powerful countries invested massively in research and nationally organized development” so that they could be the only country that benefited from the research results. However, “a large part of research was excluded from international exchange” and it further “diminished the role of international organizations such as UNESCO.” It reflects that national interests also hindered international cooperation. According to my knowledge, national interests led to economic international cooperation. In order to promote economic development, the Western European countries cooperated and formed the European Economic Community (1967), exploring new markets for trading to earn more profits. Therefore, national interests affected international cooperation. However, ideological factor was more important than national interests. The powers were worried that international cooperation would cause damages to their traditions, institutions, beliefs and characteristics. More importantly, ideology was the greatest asset to a country. Thus, they would rather protect their ideologies than having international cooperation. It shows that the ideological factor was more important than national interests. To conclude, ideological factor was the most important factor.