【2014】中國丨意圖好後果差



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 指出資料F所描繪人民公社的一個看法。試參考資料F,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現良好。題目要求考生指出資料F所描繪對人民公社的一個看法。很多考生能夠恰當描述畫家的看法。部分表現欠佳的考生誤解資料內容,以為畫家認為公社是不好的。這種答法不能得分。

評分準則

* 有效看法一分,有效解釋兩分 看法︰ 例︰ - 人民公社帶領中國走向繁盛。 解釋︰ 例︰ - 人民公社令中國物資充裕(輪船飛機表示工業繁榮,稻米蔬菜表示日常生活富庶)。各行各業的人(漫畫中的五個人代表工人、農民、幹部、學生、軍人)均對它充滿熱情。

參考答案

資料F認為人民公社將會為中國帶來豐衣足食,走向富強。 漫畫家描繪人民公社載著飛機、輪船、土高爐等工業物資外,還包含稻米蔬菜等農作物,喻意人民公社不但促進工業發展,而且為國民帶來豐衣足食,實帶領中國踏上富強之路。 同時,資料F中五名分別代表學生、軍人、工人等不同職業的民眾支撐著人民公社,而他們都表現得雀躍歡喜,反映資料認為人民公社將為中國帶來豐盛,前路一片光明。 最後,民眾在資料F中是以龍來運送人民公社的,而中國文化視龍為自豪、發奮等象徵,這都反映漫畫家認為人民公社將為中國帶來祝福。

(b) 就資料G所示,描述1953-75年間中國經濟發展的兩個趨勢。(4分)


考生表現

表現平均。題目要求考生就資料G所示描述1953-1975年間中國經濟發展的兩個趨勢。一般而言,考生能夠從資料中恰當地歸納出相關趨勢。然而,很多考生未能按題目要求涵蓋整個時期,答案往往僅涉及該時期的開始和末尾兩段。

評分準則

* 一個趨勢 [最多2分] 例︰ - 1953至1975年間,四個領域中,工業發展一直保持正增長,增長率亦是最高。 - 農業和商業的增長率相對頗低。就算在社會環境較穩定的調整時期,商業增長率僅為2.9%,為同時期工業增長率的七分之一。

參考答案

第一個趨勢是工業維持正增長。 從資料G的數據分析,只有工業由第一個五年計劃到第四個五年計劃都維持正正增長,分別是19.6%、1.8%、21.4%、12.3%和8.3%。反之其他領域也都曾出現過負增長,國民收入(第二個五年計劃︰-3.1%)、農業(第二個五年計劃︰-3.1%)和商業(第二個五年計劃︰-4.3%)。可見,第一個趨勢是工業維持正增長。 第二個趨勢是工業增長率為眾領域之首。 工業增長率一直居於首位,以調整時期為例,當時國民收入、農業、商業的增長率分別為14.7%、11.5%、2.9%,但工業卻以21.4%的增長率大幅拋離。此情況更是由第一個五年計劃維持至第四個五年計劃未曾改變,顯示工業增長率為眾領域之首。

(c) 「大躍進運動及文化大革命兩者都是意圖好,後果差。」你是否同意此說?試參考資料F及G,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現平均。題目要求考生根據資料F及G並就其所知,評論「大躍進運動及文化大革命兩者都是意圖好,後果差」一說能否成立。只有表現最佳的考生能夠均衡作答,基於「意圖」和「後果」展開討論。部分表現欠佳的考生嘗試討論「意圖」和「後果」,惟兩者出現錯配,影響表現。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效使用資料及個人所知。 [最多2分] L2 答案缺乏均衡,僅能有效運用資料個人所知;能討論意圖及後果,惟該等意圖及後果並不搭配(例如討論政治意圖及經濟後果)。 [最多4分] L3 答案有力且均衡,能有效運用資料個人所知;所討論的意圖及後果能互相搭配。 [最多7分] 大躍進運動︰ 例︰ - 意圖︰讓中國物質生活繁盛(資料F) - 後果︰導致經濟危機(資料G),史家稱為「三年大饑荒」(個人所知)。 文化大革命︰ 例︰ - 意圖︰避免中國走資本主義道路和變成修正主義(個人所知) - 後果︰導致長期權力鬥爭和武鬥(個人所知),經濟發展緩慢(資料G)。

參考答案

題目所言確能成立。 先從意圖好方面討論。 第一,大躍進計劃試圖改善中國社經濟情況。資料F指出大躍進計動的目標是為中國帶來豐盛,漫畫家將人民公社描繪成載滿飛機、輪船、稻米、蔬菜等物品的大盆子,意味著大躍進運動能夠改善國民生活,促進現代化,實為意圖好。 第二,大躍進計劃目標凝聚國民。資料F中擔著盆子的民眾表現雀躍,更乘坐「龍」進入大躍進的大門,不但反映民眾支持大躍進運動,並相信這會為他們帶來祝福、幸運,實為意圖好。 第三、大躍進計劃目標改善中國工農發展。就我所知,大躍進分為「農業大躍進」和「工業大躍進」,均希望中國在十五年內「超英趕美」擠身強國之列,顯示大躍進運動旨在帶領中國走出陰霾,實為意圖好。 文大大革命方面,文革目標將中國發展成共產主義國家。就我所知,毛澤東為打倒「修正主義」,慎防中國走資本主義的道路,利用群眾挑起文化大革命,從而鞏固中國共產黨政權,穩定社會秩序,實為意圖好。 現將從後果差方面討論。 大躍進運動方面,大躍進導致中國經濟發衰退。資料G反映國民收入、農業和商業於運動期間都出現負增長(-3.1%、-5.8%和-4.3%),而剩下的工業範疇也比上個五年計劃減少17.8%增長率,顯示大躍進運動使中國經濟發展倒退,實為後果差。 農業方面,大躍進造成糧食問題。就我所知,大躍進運動主張「以糧為綱」,官員為得稱許而浮誇虛報收成,結果導致「三年大飢荒」出現,約3600萬人於運動期間(1958-1960)死於非命,造成嚴重人禍,後果當然差。 文化大革命方面,文革導致中國經濟嚴重損失。資料G顯示文化大革命導致中國經濟發展緩慢,以增長率最明顯的工業為例,於第三和第四個五年計劃的增長率只得12.3%和8.3%,遠不及第一個五年計劃時的19.6%,其他範疇如國民收入和農業亦如是,未能帶來合理的經濟成果,實為後果差。 教育方面,文革阻礙中國學術發展。就我所知,文化大革命貶抑專業知識,毛澤東提倡「讀書無用論」,認為上學只會讓青年「愈讀愈蠢」,於是大量學生失學。文化大革命結束時半約兩億人口為文盲或半文盲(1982),知識傳承面對斷層危機,實為後果差。 文化方面,文革破壞中國傳統文明。就我所知,文革期間主張「破四舊,立四新」,大量傳統文物如孔子「萬世師表」牌面都受到紅衛兵燒毀,許多珍貴文化也因而受到傷害,對文化傳承而言無疑是個不能計算的損失,實為後果差。 因此,題目所言確能成立。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify one view regarding the People’s Commune, as portrayed in Source F. Explain your answer with reference to Source F. (3 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was good. The question required candidates to identify one view from Source F regarding the People’s Commune. Many candidates were able to appropriately describe the painter’s view. Some weak candidates misunderstood the Source and wrote that the People’s Commune was bad in the eyes of the painter. Answers like this were not awarded any marks.

Marking scheme

*One mark for a valid view, and two marks for valid explanation View: e.g.

- The People’s Commune brought prosperity to China. Explanation: e.g.

- The People’s Commune gave material abundance (industrial prosperity as reflected by the ship and train, good everyday life as reflected by the paddy husk and vegetable). People of all walks (workers, peasants, cadres, students and soldiers as represented by the five people in the cartoon) embraced it cheerfully.

Suggested answer

Source F thought that the People’s Commune would bring ample food and clothing to Chinese people as well as transforming China into a strong and rich nation. According to Source F, the cartoonist depicted that the People’s Commune was carrying industrial materials such as airplanes, ships and blast furnaces. It was carrying crops like vegetables and rice as well. It implies that the People’s Commune not only promoted industrial development, but it also brought ample food and clothing to Chinese people as well as strengthening China. Meanwhile, in Source F, five people who were representing students, soldiers and workers were supporting the People’s Commune and they were full of joy. It reflects that Source F believed the People’s Commune would bring richness to China and lead China to embark on the journey of prosperity. Lastly, in Source F, people carried the People’s Commune by dragons. In Chinese culture, dragons were symbolized as pride and determined efforts. Therefore, it can be deduced that the cartoonist believed the People’s Commune would bring blessings to China.

(b) Describe two trends in China’s economic development in the period 1953-1975 as shown in Source G. (4 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was average. This question required candidates to describe two trends in China’s economic development in the period 1953-1975 as shown in Source G. Generally speaking, candidates were able to conclude valid trends from the Source. However, many did not cover the whole period as specified in the question. They tended to tackle the beginning and the end of the period in question only.

Marking scheme

* One trend [max. 2 marks]


e.g.

- Among the four sectors, growth in industry had always been positive and the highest from 1953 to 1975. - Agriculture and commerce had much lower growth rates. Even in the readjustment period in which society was relatively stable, commerce only grew at a rate of 2.9%, seven times less than the industrial growth in the same period.

Suggested answer

The first trend is that the industry sector remained positive growth rates in the period 1953-1975. According to Source G, only the industry remained positive growth rates from the First Five-year Plan to the Fourth Five-year Plan, which were 19.6%, 1.8%, 21.4%, 12.3% and 8.3%. Oppositely, there were negative growths from other economic sectors, such as national income (Second Five-year Plan: -3.1%), agriculture (Second Five-year Plan: -3.1%) and commerce (Second Five-year Plan: -4.3%). Therefore, the first trend is that the industry remained positive growth rates. The second trend is that the growth rates of the industry were always the highest among all economic sectors. Take the readjustment period as an example. The growth rates of national income, agriculture and commerce were 14.7%, 11.5% and 2.9% respectively at that time. However, the growth rate of industry was 21.4% that overtook other sectors. This situation remained unchanged from the First Five-year plan to the Fourth Five-year Plan, reflecting that the growth rates of the industry were always the highest among all economic sectors.

(c) ‘Both the Great Leap Forward Movement and the Cultural Revolution had good intentions but yielded bad results.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources F and G, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was average. This question required candidates to comment on the validity of the statement that ‘both the Great Leap Forward Movement and the Cultural Revolution had good intentions but yielded bad results’, with reference to Sources F and G and using their own knowledge. Only the best candidates presented balanced answers and based their discussions on ‘intentions’ and ‘results’. Some weak candidates attempted to discuss ‘intentions’ and ‘results’, but performance was affected by obvious mismatches.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or knowledge only; discusses both intentions and results, but such intentions and results do not relate to each other (e.g. political intentions followed by economic results). [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge; the intentions and results discussed are related to each other. [max. 7]


The Great Leap Forward Movement: e.g.

- Intention: to make China materially prosperous (Source F) - Result: it ended in economic disaster (Source G), which historians called ‘three years of great famine’ (own knowledge) The Cultural Revolution: e.g.

- Intention: to prevent China from becoming capitalistic and revisionist. (own knowledge) - Result: it led to long-standing power struggle and armed fights (own knowledge) and slow economic development (Source G).

Suggested answer

I agree with this statement. Both the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution had good intentions. Firstly, the Great Leap Forward aimed at improving the economy of China. According to Source F, the purpose of the Great Leap Forward was to bring richness to China. The cartoonist depicted the People’s Commune as a large basin filled with airplanes, ships, rice and vegetable, implying that the Great Leap Forward would be able to improve people’s living standard and promote modernization in China. Thus, the Great Leap Forward had good intention. Secondly, the Great Leap Forward aimed at uniting Chinese people. According to Source F, people who were carrying the basin were very excited and they were taken to the door labelled “the Great Leap Forward” by the dragon. It reflects that the Chinese people at that time supported the Great Leap Forward and meanwhile they believed it would bring blessings and lucks to them. Thus, the Great Leap Forward had good intention. Thirdly, the Great Leap Forward aimed at promoting industrial and agricultural development in China. According to my own knowledge, the Chinese government aimed at achieving great leap forward in both industrial production and agricultural production, hoping that China could “surpass Britain and catch up with the US within 15 years and become one of the world powers. It shows that the purpose of the Great Leap Forward was to strengthen China which was a good intention. For the Cultural Revolution, it aimed at transforming China into a communist country. According to my knowledge, in order to oppose against “revisionism” and prevent China from becoming a capitalist country, Mao Zedong encouraged people to initiate the Cultural Revolution to consolidate the Chinese Communist regime as well as stabilizing social order. Thus, the Cultural Revolution had a good intention. However, both the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution yielded bad results. For the Great Leap Forward, it caused economic recession in China. According to Source G, there were negative growth rates for national income, agriculture and commerce during the mass movement (-3.1%, -5.8%, and -4.3%). Even for the industrial sector, its growth rate dropped 17.8%, reflecting that the Great Leap Forward had caused economic recession in China. Thus, the Great Leap Forward yielded bad results. In agricultural aspect, the Great Leap Forward caused food problems. According to my knowledge, the Great Leap Forward advocated “take grain as the key link”. The government officials thus over-reported the outputs in order to get compliment. It resulted in “the Great Chinese Famine” that about 36 million people died during the movement (1958-1960). Therefore, the Great Leap Forward eventually led to a serious man-made misfortune which was a bad result. For the Cultural Revolution, it led to serious economic loss in China. According to Source G, the Cultural Revolution had slowed down the economic development of China. Take the industrial sector as an example. Its growth rates in the Third Five-year Plan and the Fourth Five-year Plan were 12.3% and 8.3 % respectively. It was far less than the growth rate of 19.6% in the First Five-year Plan. The Cultural Revolution also failed to bring reasonable economic benefits to other sectors such as national income and agriculture. Thus, the Cultural Revolution yielded bad results. In educational aspect, the Cultural Revolution hindered China’s academic development. According to my own knowledge, the Cultural Revolution belittled the values of professional knowledge. Mao Zedong advocated the saying “the more you study, the more foolish you become”, believing that studying was useless. Thus, a large number of students dropped out of schools. After the end of the Cultural Revolution, about 200 million Chinese people were illiterate of semi-literate (1982) and China lost a generation of talent, which was a bad result. In cultural aspect, the Cultural Revolution undermined traditional Chinese civilization. According to my own knowledge, people advocated destroying the “four olds” and establishing the “four news” during the Cultural Revolution. Many cultural relics such as the brand “Model Teacher for Ten Thousand Ages” of Confucius was burnt down by the Red Guards. The Cultural Revolution had caused countless damages to the precious Chinese culture and it hindered the historical inheritance in China. Thus, the Cultural Revolution yielded bad results. Therefore, I agree with this statement.