【2013】中國丨現代化(12-20)



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 據資料A所示,三民主義是否已經實現?試根據資料A,解釋你的答案。(2分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能夠參考資料A評論三民主義是否已經實現。


評分準則

L1 僅指出已實現或未實現的主義。 [最多1分] L2 能指出兩者。 [最多2分] 例︰ - 民族、民權主義已實現,民生主義則否。

參考答案

三民主義在大程度上成立。 根據資料,孫中山指隨著「滿清退位」和「中華民國」的成立,三民主義中的「民族、民權兩主義」已經「達到」,反映三民主義的「民族」和「民權」主義於1912年已經在中國實現。 然而,孫中山指「民生主義尚未著手」,表示民國政府仍未就「民生主義」的落實而作相關行動,更指「今後吾人所當致力的即在此事」,說明日後須從民生主義工作,反映三民主義的「民族主義」尚未在中國實現。 故此,三民主義只在大程度上實現。

(b) 資料B作者對袁世凱持什麼態度?試參考資料B的用語及論據,解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能夠有效參考資料B的用語和論據,指出資料B作者對袁世凱的態度。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能清晰指出袁氏態度,及/或僅能按資料的用語或論據解釋答案。 [最多2分] L2 答案清晰,能指出袁氏態度,亦能按資料的用語及論據解釋答案。 [最多4分] 態度︰ 例︰ - 憎惡 用語︰ 例︰ - 「譸張譎詐」、「神奸」 論據︰ 例︰ - 袁氏復辟帝制而不顧列強警告。

參考答案

資料B作者對袁世凱持不滿的負面態度。 先從用語方面解釋。 資料指袁世凱稱帝的行為乃「元凶逢惡」,利用貶義詞語批評袁世凱為人憎惡,是罪魁禍首,對袁氏所作所為感到不滿,故持討厭的負面態度。 其次,資料更直指袁世凱「譸張譎詐」,利用貶義成語批評袁世凱,形容袁氏無比狡猾,欺騙全中國人民,反對袁世凱的統治,故持不滿的負面態度。 現從論據方面解釋。 同時,資料指袁世凱即使面對「五國警告」,他亦「猶悍然不顧」,不以為然繼續他的稱帝運動,犧牲全國利益只顧一己私利讓百姓憤怒,故持不滿的負面態度。 最後,資料指袁世凱不但「以四萬萬人為犧牲」,更以「全國土地為代價」,為求滿足自己稱帝的野心,放棄全中國上下國民的利益,故持討厭的負面態度。 資料指袁世凱乃「千古未有之神奸」,諷刺袁世凱乃自古以來最狡詐之徒,形容其為人鄙劣,故持不滿的負面態度。

(c) 1912-1920年間,中國在什麼程度上可被視為一個現代化國家?試參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)



考生表現

表現令人滿意。大部分考生能夠討論1912-1920年間中國在什麼程度上可被視為一個現代化國家。然而,相當多考生未能清楚分辨所用線索哪些來自資料,哪些來自個人所知,因而失分。

評分準則

L1 論點含混,未能有效論及資料及相關史實,及/ 或對中國現代化程度討論不足。 [最多2分] L2 討論欠均衡,僅能有效運用資料或相關史實,及/或片面討論中國的現代化程度。 [最多4分] L3 討論有力且均衡,能有效運用資料及相關史實,及能合理均衡地討論中國的現代化程度。 [最多7分] 現代化︰ 例︰ - 民主已經達到,民國已經成立。(資料A及B) - 新文化運用普及白話文。(個人所知) 未現代化︰ 例︰ - 中國未曾經歷社會革命。(資料A) - 共和體制被袁世凱廢掉。(資料B) - 軍閥統治阻礙了中國的社會及經濟發展。(個人所知)

參考答案

中國在小程度上可被視為一個現代化國家。 資料A孫中山指屬於「社會革命」的「民生主義尚未著手」,暗示民生主義仍未在中國實現,社會情況仍然惡劣,陋習隨著可見,故中國只在小程度上被視為現代化國家。 資料B中的「1915年的政治運動領袖」批評當時民國政府當權者袁世凱「元凶逢惡」和「譸張譎詐」,為滿足其個人「野心」,「自為帝制」,發起帝制復辟運動,讓政治發展倒退,故只在小程度上被視為現代化國家。 同時,資料B指袁世凱「玩弄全國於股掌」,不但漠視「五國警告」,為求滿足個私利,不惜「以四萬萬人為犧牲」,更以「全國土地為代價」,讓國民活於水深火熱之中,更一度惡化中國與列強間關係,故小程度上被視為現代化國家。 就我所知,經濟方面,1912-1920年間中國接近八成人口為農民,他們使用傳統落後的耕種技術,生產力低,再加上土地兼併的問題,經濟情況惡劣,故小程度上被視為現代化國家。 教育方面,1912-1920年代中國的入學率僅只約20%,入學率反映國民的教育水平。民智尚未開啟,國民無法投入於現代化建設,故在小程度上屬於現代化國家。 外交方面,1912-1920年間中國仍受到不平等條約掣肘,如《馬關條約》(1895)和《辛丑條約》(1901),中國仍未獲得與西方列強平等的外交地位,故小程度上被視為現代化國家。 社會方面,傳統重男輕女於1912-1920年間仍屬於中國主流思想,主張「女子無才便是德」,女性地位受到壓抑,成為男性的附庸,故只能在小程度上被視為現代化國家。 然而,大程度上中國乃現代化國家。 資料A的孫中山指屬於「政治革命」的「民族主義」和「民族主義」於1912-1920年間的中國是「達到」的,暗示政治機關得以改良,民權得以彰顯,故在大程度上是現代化國家。 就我所知,中國在1919年爆發「五四運動」,國民主張「內除國賊,外爭主權」,新思潮得以傳播,民智開啟,故在大程度上是為現代化國家。 總結而言,雖然1910年代年中國社會出現現代化特徵,包括公民社會的建立、民智開啟等,但現代化政策主要由政府所推動,當時民國政府專制集權,加上經濟發展緩慢,難以談上是個現代化國家。所以,題目所言小程度成立。

參考答案(英文版)

(a) According to Source A, were the Three People’s Principles achieved? Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (2 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to comment whether the Three People’s Principle were achieved, with reference to Source A.

Marking scheme

L1 Only pointing out principle(s) that had been achieved or principle(s) that had not been achieved. [max. 1] L2 Able to point out both. [max. 2] e.g.

- The Principles of Nationalism and Democracy had been achieved, but the Principle of Livelihood had not.

Suggested answer

The Three People’s Principles were achieved to a large extent. According to Source A, Sun Yat-sen indicated that as “the Manchu Qing emperor abdicates, and the Republic of China is established”, “the two Principles of Nationalism and Democracy have both been achieved”. It reflects that the Principles of Nationalism and Democracy were achieved in 1912 in China. However, Sun also pointed out that “the Principle of People’s Livelihood is yet to be dealt with”, showing that the Republican government had not yet done anything to achieve the Principle of People’s Livelihood. He even indicated that the Principle of People’s Livelihood was “what we should strive for”, implying the Principle was not yet achieved in 1912 in China. Therefore, the Three People’s Principles were achieved to a large extent.

(b) What was the attitude of the author of Source B towards Yuan Shikai? Explain your answer with reference to the language and arguments used in Source B. (4 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to identify the attitude of the author of Source B towards Yuan Shikai with good reference to the language and arguments used in Source B.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to clearly identify Yuan’s attitude, and/or only able to make good use of the language or arguments used in the Source to explain the answer. [max. 2] L2 Clear answer, able to identify Yuan’s attitude, with good use of the language and arguments used in the Source to explain the answer. [max. 4] Attitude: e.g. – Hateful Language: e.g. – ‘deceitful and dishonest’, ‘evil person’. Argument: e.g. – Yuan revived monarchical rule, ignoring warnings of the powers.

Suggested answer

The author of Source B held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan Shikai. In term of language, Source B pointed out that Yuan Shikai was the “evil chief culprit” as he attempted to make himself monarch. The author criticized Yuan for being hateful and a culprit by using negative wordings. It reflects that the author was dissatisfied with the behavior of Yuan and thus he held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan. Moreover, Source B pointed out that Yuan Shikai was “deceitful and dishonest”. The author criticized Yuan for being deceitful and deceiving the all Chinese people by negative wordings. It implies that the author opposed against the rule of Yuan and thus he held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan. In term of arguments, Source B indicates that “despite warnings from the five powers”, “Yuan still rudely brushes the warnings aside” and continued his attempt of making himself monarch. Yuan had angered the nationals as he sacrificed national interests for his own interests. Thus, the author held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan. In addition, Source B reflects that Yuan not only “sacrifice four hundred million people”, but he also “pay the price of the entire nation’s territory”. It implies that Yuan was willing to sacrifice the interests of the whole nation in order to satisfy his ambition of becoming the emperor. Therefore, the author held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan. Lastly, Source B pointed out that “China never has such an evil person over the ages”, satirizing Yuan that he was the most deceitful person over the ages. Thus, the author held discontent negative attitude towards Yuan.

(c) To what extent could China be regarded as a modernized country in the period 1912-1920? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ performance

Performance was satisfactory. Most candidates could conduct discussions on the extent to which China could be regarded as a modernized country in the period 1912-1920. However, a considerable number of candidates could not clearly distinguish which clues they used came from the Sources, and which from their own knowledge, hence losing marks.

Marking scheme

L1 Vague argument, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge, and/or limited discussion of China’s degree of modernity. [max. 2] L2 Unbalanced discussion with effective use of Sources or own knowledge only, and/or one-side discussion of China’s degree of modernity. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced discussion with effective use of both Sources and own knowledge, and reasonably balanced discussion of China’s degree of modernity. [max. 7] Modernized: e.g. – Democracy was achieved, and a republic was founded. (Sources A and B) - The New Culture Movement popularized vermicular language. (own knowledge) Not modernized: e.g. – China was yet to undergo a social revolution. (Source A) - Republicanism was scrapped by Yuan Shikai. (Source B) - Warlordism hindered China’s social and economic development. (own knowledge)

Suggested answer

China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. According to Source A, Sun Sat-sen indicated that “The Principle of People’s Livelihood” of “social revolution” was yet to be dealt with, implying the Principle of People’s Livelihood was not achieved in China. The social situation was still very poor and there were still many corrupt customs in China. Hence, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. According to Source B, “a leader of a political campaign in 1915” criticized Yuan Shikai, the authority of the Republic of China, for being the “evil chief culprit” as well as being “deceitful and dishonest”. In order to satisfy his own ambition, Yuan initiated the restoration of the monarchy, making the political development of China backwards. Thus, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. Moreover, Source B shows that Yuan Shikai “fools the entire nation in the palm of his hand”. Not only did he ignore the “warnings from the five powers”, he also “sacrifice four hundred million people” and “pay the price of the entire nation’s territory” in order to satisfy his own interests. Yuan’s behaviors had led to poor lives of the nationals and also worsened the relations among China and the powers. Thus, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. According to my own knowledge, in economic aspect, nearly 80% of Chinese population was peasants in 1912-1920. The peasants used backward traditional farming techniques so the agricultural productivity in China was low. In addition to the problem of land annexation, the economic development of China was backward. Thus, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. According to my own knowledge, in educational aspect, China’s enrollment rate was only about 20% in 1912-1920. The enrollment rate had reflected the low educational level of the Chinese people. Thus, they could not make any contribution in modernizing China. Hence, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. In diplomatic aspect, China was still constrained by the unequal treaties in 1912-1920 such as the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and the Boxer Protocol (1901). China still failed in gaining equal diplomatic status with the Western powers so it could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. In social aspect, China was still a patriarchal society that women were considered as the subordinates of men in 1912-1920. Traditional thoughts like “a woman who lacks talent is virtuous” were widespread in China. Women’s status was suppressed so China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent. However, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a large extent According to Source A, Sun Yat-sen pointed out that “the two Principles of Nationalism and Democracy have both been achieved” in China during 1912-1920, implying that the Chinese political institutions had been improved and civil rights had been guaranteed. Thus, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a large extent. According to my own knowledge, the May Fourth Movement broke out in 1919 in China. The Chinese people advocated the slogan “struggle for national sovereignty externally, get rid of national traitors internally”. New thoughts were widespread and this led to national awakening. Thus, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a large extent. To conclude, there were some signs of modernization in Chinese society like the establishment of civil society and national awakening in the 1910s. However, the modernization policies were mainly promoted by the government while the Republican government was actually autocratic. In addition to the slow economic development, China could be regarded as a modernized country to a small extent.