L1 嘗試描述局勢，惟未能有效運用資料支持答案。 [最多1分] L2 清楚描述局勢，並能有效運用資料支持答案。 [最多3分] 歐洲的局勢︰ 例︰ 歐洲正受到德國的威脅。 線索︰ 例︰ 「德國吞併奧地利一事的嚴重性不容低估。」 「歐洲正面對一個計算精準、時間恰到好處、分階段漸次進行的侵略計劃。」
1938年歐洲的局勢十分嚴峻且動盪不安，正受到德國侵略的威脅。 資料C的演說是「德國吞併奧地利三天之後」所發表的，而邱吉爾更明確指出「德國吞併奧地利一事的嚴重性不容低估」，一方面反映歐洲正受到德國發動侵略的威脅，另一方面更顯示歐洲政局的混亂，故可推斷1938年歐洲局勢嚴峻且動盪不安。 其次，資料C指「歐洲正面對一個計劃精準、時間恰到好處、分階段漸次進行的侵略計劃」，暗示歐洲各個國家的國家安全都面臨挑戰，隨時受到德國侵略的危機，反映歐洲局勢動盪不安，受到德國侵略的威脅。
L1 答案含混，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知作答。 [最多2分] L2 答案清楚，能運用資料及個人所知作答。 [最多4分] 偏見︰ 例︰ 漫畫出版於英國。（資料）
英國越來越對德國的外交有所警惕，而漫畫家誇大了德國的擴張行為，將之描繪成包圍了全球。（個人所知） 不是偏見︰ 例︰ 漫畫所表達的中心訊息是︰希特拉利用侵略別國作為手段，讓「德國永遠不會被包圍」。（資料）
資料對德國大程度上存有偏見。 雖然資料D的漫畫描述希特拉（德國）環抱地球，喻意德國發動侵略行動，威脅全球安危，實與當時歐洲局勢相符，沒有偏見。 就我所知，納粹德國上台（1933）以來，多次發動侵略，如1938年吞併奧地利、1939年侵略捷克全境等，威脅歐洲以至全球的安全，與資料漫畫描述相符，沒有偏見。 然而，資料於其他方面描繪失實，故大程度上存有偏見。 資料D指出版於1939年的英國，而英國與德國當時關係惡劣，面對德國發動屢次的侵略行動，英國已部署防範。所以，出版自英國而描述有關德國的資料實有偏見。 同時，資料D指「德國永遠不會被包圍」，一方面「永遠」等詞語乃屬於極端字眼，表現德國現在或將來都不會受到其他國家圍堵；另一方面，此點亦有所失實，故資料對德國存有偏見。 就我所知，當時德國東有蘇區、西有法國、北有英國所包圍，多方面都受到其他國家所圍堵，並非資料所言「永遠不會被包圍」，此點有失史實，故資料對德國存有偏見。 再加上，資料描繪希特拉（德國）環抱地球，喻意德國即將發動侵略，範圍更禍及全球，反映德國將會侵略全球，對全球各國的國家安全作出挑戰。 就我所知，直至資料出版的年期（1939），德國侵略的範圍也僅局限於歐洲地區，如1938年的奧地利和1939年的捷克等，未至於禍及全球，故資料描述有所失實，對德國實存有偏見。 因此，資料大程度上對德國存有偏見。
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知作答，及/ 或答案能說明有關指控，必未能分別提出有效回應。 [最多2分] L2 答案欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料式個人所知作答，及/ 或答案中僅作出回應，惟未能清楚說明有關指控。 [最多4分] L3 答案合理均衡，能有效運用資料及個人所知作答。 [最多7分] 指控︰ 例︰ 德國正在威脅歐洲。（資料C） 德國正在威脅全球。（資料D） 回應︰ 例︰ - 溫斯頓．邱吉爾形容德國的行動為「計算精準、時間恰到好處」；這是對德國的偏見。（資料C）德國只是希望取回其合法的權益。（個人所知） - 激化歐洲情緒的，正是溫斯頓．邱吉爾。他將德國的行為誇大成為對「歐洲各國的自由」的威脅。（資料C） - 資料E將德國描繪成包圍全世界。（資料D）這是失實的，德國從來沒有這個意圖。（個人所知）
我將會對資料C及D的指控作出以下回應。 資料C指控德國對奧地利所作出的行動，認為「德國吞併奧地利一事的嚴重性不容低估」，一方面指控德國的行動乃「吞併」；另一方面認為德國與奧地利的行動嚴重性將禍至全歐洲。 而作為納粹發言人，我將會回應德國與奧地利的行動乃是「合併」，而非「吞併」。而德奧合併乃基於德國和奧地利的國民同屬日耳曼人，是根據巴黎和會（1919）中提出「民族自決」，同一民族居在一起的原則，乃非資料所指的「吞併」。 資料C同時指控德國威脅歐洲的安全，認為「歐洲正面對一個計算精準、時間恰到好處、分階段漸次進行的侵略計劃」，鼓勵歐洲各國「抗爭」，共同對抗德國以保國家安全。 作為納粹發言人，我將會回應德國的行動乃是合理的，原因在於巴黎和會（1919）中德國喪失超過10%的領土，對於人口高達6000萬人的德國而言，生活苦不堪言。故此，德國的行動以尋找「生存空間」為目的，而非資料批評的「侵略計劃」。 資料D描述時任德國領導人希特拉環抱地球，附以「德國永遠不會被包圍」的句子，喻意德國威脅全球各國的國家安全，且銳意以世界為目標，向世界各國作出挑戰。 作為納粹發言人，我先會指出資料D漫畫乃出版於英國，而遺憾英國與德國於此時關係不大和諧，甚有惡意，所以資料內容並不能完全作準。 再加上，資料D指出德國對世界的威脅亦欠缺理據，德國此時面臨各國的圍堵，如東有蘇聯、西有法國、北有傳統海軍強國英國，亦非資料所指的「永遠不會被包圍」，資料主張有所失實。
(a) What can you infer from Source C about the situation in Europe in 1938? Support your answer with two relevant clues from Source C. (3 marks)
Performance was satisfactory. Many candidat4s could make use of Source C to infer about the situation of Europe in 1938. The weak candidates merely copied indiscriminately from the Source without marking any inference.
L1 Attempts to describe the situation but marred by weak support from the Source. [max. 1] L2 Clear description of the situation with good support from the Source. [max. 3]
Situation of Europe: e.g.
- Europe was under German threat. Clues: e.g.
- ‘The gravity of Germany’s annexation of Austria cannot be exaggerated.’ - ‘Europe is confronted with a programme of aggression, nicely calculated and timed, unfolding stage by stage.
The situation in Europe was critical and instable in 1938 as it was threatened by German aggression. According to Source C, the speech was delivered “three days after Germany’s annexation of Austria”. In the speech, Churchill clearly stated that “the gravity of Germany’s annexation of Austria should not be underestimated”. It implies that Europe was being threatened by German aggression at that time. On the hand, it shows the instability of Europe political situation. Thus, it can be deduced that the situation in Europe was critical and instable in 1938. Moreover, Source C indicates that “Europe is confronted with a programme of aggression, nicely calculated and timed, unfolding stage by stage”. It implies that the national security of every European country was being challenged by German aggression. Therefore, the situation in Europe was critical and instable in 1938.
(b) Does Source D reflect a bias against Germany? Explain your view with reference to Source D and using your own knowledge. (4 marks)
Performance was fair. The able candidates could first state what constituted ‘bias’, and then applied this to discuss the cartoon and duly presented their conclusion. The weak candidates described the cartoon and/or narrated on facts from their own knowledge without focusing on the key word ‘bias’.
L1 Vague answer and effective use of only the source or own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Clear answer and effective use of the Source and own knowledge. [max. 4]
- The cartoon was published in Britain. (Source)
- Britain was increasingly alert to Germany’s diplomacy, and the cartoonist exaggerated Germany’s foreign expansion by describing it as encircling the globe. (own knowledge) Not biased: e.g.
- The central message the cartoon conveyed is that Hitler used invasion as a means so the ‘Germany shall never be encircled.’ (Source)
- This conformed to Nazism’s ideology and what was happening on the European continent. (own knowledge)
Source D reflects a bias against Germany to a large extent. According to Source D, Hitler (Germany) was embracing the earth, symbolizing Germany aggression which threatened the world peace. It matches the situation of Europe at that time and thus Source D does not reflect a bias. According to my own knowledge, since Nazi Germany came to power (1933), it had initiated aggression for several times, including the annexation of Austria (1938) as well as the invasion of the whole Czechoslovakia (1939). Nazi Germany had threatened the security of Europe and even the whole world, which matched the description of the cartoon in Source D. Thus, Source D does not reflect a bias. However, Source D was misleading in other ways. Therefore, Source D reflects a bias against Germany to a large extent. Source D was published from Britain in 1939 when Britain and Germany were hostile to each other. Facing the repeated aggression of Germany, Britain had already taken preventive measures. Thus, Source D reflects a bias as it was published from Britain. Meanwhile, Source D indicates “Germany shall never be encircled”. “Never” was an extreme wording which claims that Germany would not be encircled no matter for now or in the future. As it does not match the situation of Europe, Source D does reflect a bias against Germany. According to my knowledge, Germany was surrounded by the USSR at the East, France at the West and Britain at the north. Therefore, it was not true that “Germany shall never be encircled” as Source D claimed. Hence, Source D reflects a bias against Germany. Moreover, Source D depicts that Hitler (Germany) was embracing the earth, symbolizing Germany would soon initiate aggression that threatened world peace. It reflects that Germany would invade the whole world and challenge the national security of every country around the globe. According to my own knowledge, until the publication of Source D (1939), the scope of German aggression was only limited to Europe such as Austria (1938) and Czechoslovakia (1939). Germany did not invade the whole world. Therefore, Source D reflects a bias against Germany. Therefore, Source reflects a bias against Germany to a large extent.
(c) If you were a spokesman of Nazi Germany at that time, how would you respond to the accusations about Nazi aggression contained in Sources C and D respectively? Explain your answer with reference to Sources C and D, and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)
Performance was fair. Candidates should first sum up accusations from the two Sources and then respond to them from the Nazi perspective. Only the best candidates could successfully perform the above two tasks. The weak answers displayed one or more of the following flaws: copying extensively from the Sources without summing up any accusations; attempting to respond to the accusations but not from the Nazi perspective; narrating on Nazi expansion without focusing on the Sources.
L1 Vague answer, ineffective in using both Sources and own knowledge, and/or the answer identifies accusations without making valid responses to them. [max. 2] L2 Lack in balance, effective in using Sources or own knowledge only, and/or the answer focuses on the responses without clearly identifying the accusations. [max. 4] L3 Sound and balanced answer, effective in using both Sources and own knowledge. [max. 7]
- Germany was threatening Europe. (Source C) - Germany was threatening the world. (Source D) Responses: e.g. - Winston Churchill described Germany’s actions as ‘calculated and timed’; this was biased against Germany. (Source C) Germany only intended to get back its legitimate rights. (own knowledge) - It was Winston Churchill who had intensified the mood in Europe by exaggerating Germany’s efforts as a threat to the ‘freedom of the nations of Europe’. (Source C) - Source E depicted Germany as encircling the whole world. (Source D) This was ridiculous as Germany never meant for this. (own knowledbge)
I would respond to the accusations contained in Sources C and D as follows. According to Source C, it condemned the German action taken against Austria, thinking that “the gravity of Germany’s annexation of Austria should not be underestimated”. On one hand, Source C condemned the German action as “annexation”. On the other hand, Source C believed that the gravity of Germany’s annexation of Austria had spread to the whole Europe. As the spokesman of Nazi Germany, I would respond that Germany’s action taken against Austria was a “merger” instead of “annexation”. Germany and Austria merged together since the nationals of the two countries belonged to the same race---Germanic people. Based on the “national self-determination” advocated in the Paris Peace Conference (1919), people from the same could live together. Therefore, German action taken against Austria was not “annexation”. Meanwhile, Source C accused that Germany was threatening the security of Europe. It believed that “Europe is confronted with a programme of aggression, nicely calculated and timed, unfolding stage by stage” so it encouraged the European countries to offer “resistance” to Germany in order to protect their national security. As the spokesman of Nazi Germany, I would respond that Germany’s action was reasonable as Germany had lost 10% of its territories in the Paris Peace Conference (1919). It was a miserable punishment for Germany which had a population of 60 million people. Hence, the purpose of Germany’s action was to explore “living space” instead of being an “aggression plan” as criticized by Source C. According to Source D, Hitler, the leader of Germany, was embracing the earth. The caption of the cartoon “Germany shall never be encircled” also implies that Germany would threaten the world peace that it was determined to challenge the national security of every country around the globe. As the spokesman of Nazi Germany, I would point out that the cartoon in Source D was published from Britain and the relationship between Britain and Germany was not friendly and even hostile at that time. Therefore, Source D could not be fully verified. In addition, Source D lacks evidence to prove that Germany had threatened the world peace. Germany was actually surrounded by many countries, such as the USSR at the East, France at the West and Britain, the traditional naval power, at the North. Thus, it was not true that “Germany shall never be encircled” as Source D claimed. Hence, the accusation of Source D was not true.