L1 答案含混，僅描述海報，沒有推斷其目的。 [最多1分] L2 答案清楚，嘗試推斷，惟未能有效參考資料。 [最多2分] L3 合理推斷目的，並能有效參考資料。 [最多4分] 目的︰ 例︰ - 動員群眾與修正主義者戰鬥。 線索︰ 例︰ - 該紅衛兵的一隻腳踩在劉少奇和鄧小平身上，劉、鄧當時被認為是修正主義者。
海報目的在於捍衛毛澤東思想，並吸引民眾追隨和支持。 從資料E的漫畫中，漫畫家把鄧小平和劉少奇描繪成雙頭獸，劉、鄧兩人為中國當時「修正主義」的推行者，而兩人不但被醜化成怪獸喻意禍害人間，更被男人踏著，可推斷漫畫目的是反對修正主義。 同時，資料簡介指出漫畫中的人們佩帶寫著「紅衛兵」和「造反派」的臂章，部分更手持《毛澤東選集》，而紅衛兵是以捍衛毛澤東思想而成立的組織，《毛澤東語錄》更是毛澤東出版的刊物，故可推斷漫畫目的鼓勵人們捍衛毛澤東思想，並追隨和支持。
L1 答案含混，未能有效運用資料及個人所知所答。 [最多2分] L2 答案欠缺均衡，僅能有效運用資料或個人所知作答。 [最多3分] L3 答案合理及均衡，能有效運用資料及相關史實作答。[最多6分] 短期影響︰ 例︰ - 造成政治動盪。（資料E） - 公眾參與很多政治運動。（資料E） - 造成經濟停滯。（個人所知） - 文革期間，很多歷史文物被摧毀，中華文化受到破壞。（個人所知） 長期影響︰ 例︰ - 中國共產黨最終結束了「以階級鬥爭為綱」的政策。（個人所知） - 文革導致中國出現信心危機。一些中國人質疑中國共產黨作為執政黨的合法性。（個人所知）
先討論文化大革命對中國的短期影響。 政治方面，文化大革命帶來政治動盪。資料E的漫畫反映中國共產黨的高級官員如劉少奇、鄧小平等都被紅衛兵所批鬥，毫無反抗之力，反映文化大革命時中國陷入長期批鬥，政治動盪無所適從。 社會方面，文化大革命造成社會混亂。資料E的漫畫描繪中國人民於文化大革命期間手執《毛澤東語錄》，並戴上象徵紅衛兵的臂章，參與各項批鬥或群眾運動，此亦造成社會分裂，動盪不堪。 就我所知，經濟方面，文化大革命造成嚴重的經濟損失。文化大革命期間國民不事生產，而紅衛兵更出去破壞，導致大部分的工廠生產停頓，百廢待興，估計1966-1976年間中國共損失約5000億美元，合計建國30年的總和，帶來嚴重的經濟損失。 其次，文化方面，文化大革命對中國傳統帶來衝擊。文化大革命期間，紅衛兵響應毛澤東的號召，主張「破四舊，立四新」，對傳統文化作出嚴動的批判，如破壞孔廟和「萬世師表」的牌坊，對傳統文物造成難以估計的衝擊。 現討論文化大革命對中國的長期影響。 政治方面，文化大革命帶來「三信危機」。文化大革命被中國人視為「十年浩劫」，因而出現「三信危機」，分別對馬克斯主義、共產黨和社會主義出現質疑，迫使中國共產黨放棄「以階級鬥爭為綱」的政策，轉而以實務為主的方針。 社會方面，文化大革命對人倫道德帶來深遠影響。文化大革命期間中國國民追隨毛澤東，更出現「嗲親娘親不及毛主席」的口號，為進行革命不惜舉報或批鬥自己父母，如著名中國共產黨黨員薄熙來就曾批鬥自己的父親，對中國社會人倫道德帶來深遠的影響。 由此可見，上述分析文化大革命對中國的長期和短期影響。
(a) Infer the purpose of the poster. Explain your answer with reference to Source E. (4 marks)
Performance was fair. Candidates should pay the due attention to both the background and foreground of the poster in order to infer its purpose. However, some weak candidates merely focused on the background (many Red Guards holding copies of Selected Works of Mao Zedong) and ignored the foreground (a Red Guard holding a hammer and about to hit the beast under his foot, representing Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping), therefore they made wrong inferences.
L1 Vague answer, only describing the poster, not inferring its purpose. [max. 1] L2 clear answer, shows attempts to infer, but marred by ineffective reference to the Source. [max. 2] L3 Reasonable inference of purpose, with effective reference to the Source. [max. 4]
- To mobilize the mass to fight against the revisionists Clues: e.g.
- The Red Guard had one of his feet on Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping, who were then regarded as revisionists.
The purpose of the poster was to defend Mao Zedong thought and attract people to follow and support Mao Zedong. According to Source E, the cartoonist depicted Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi as a two-headed beast. As Liu and Deng were the promoters of “revisionism” in China at that time, they were vilified as a beast stepped by a man that would hurt the people. Therefore, it can be deduced that the purpose of the poster was to oppose to “revisionism”. Meanwhile, the introduction of the poster indicates that the people wore arm bands with Chinese characters meaning ‘Red Guard’ or ‘rebel faction’. Some of them held in their hands Selected Works of Mao Zedong.The Red Guard was a group of people who defended Mao Zedong thought and the Selected Works of Mao Zedong was even published by Mao. Therefore, it can be deduced that the purpose of the poster was to encourage people to defend Mao Zedong thought and call them to follow and support Mao.
(b) With reference to Source E and using your own knowledge, discuss the short-term and long-term impact of the Cultural Revolution of China. (6 marks)
Performance was fair. Candidates should make use of Source E and their own knowledge to discuss the short-term and long-term impact of the Cultural Revolution on China. The weak answers displayed one or more of the following flaws: being unable to differentiate short-term from long-term impact of the Cultural Revolution; mistaking ‘impact’ for ‘result’, therefore the answers were irrelevant; handling the Source and own knowledge in an unbalanced manner. Excellent answers were rare.
L1 Vague answer and ineffective use of both Source and own knowledge. [max. 2] L2 Unbalanced answer and effective use of the Source and own knowledge only. [max. 3] L3 Sound and balanced answer, with effective use of both the Source and own knowledge. [max. 6]
Short-term impact: e.g.
- The Cultural Revolution led to political upheavals. (Source E) - The public was pre-occupied with political movements. (Source E) - There was economic stagnation. (own knowledge) - During the Cultural Revolution, many historical monuments were destroyed. Traditional Chinese culture was severed. (own knowledge) Long-term impact: e.g.
- The Chinese Communist Party put an end to the policy of ‘class struggle as the key link’. (own knowledge) - The Cultural Revolution led to a crisis of confidence. Some Chinese questioned the legitimacy of Chinese Communist Party as a ruling party. (own knowledge)
Firstly, let’s discuss the short-term impact of the Cultural Revolution. In political aspect, the Cultural Revolution caused political turmoil. According to Source E, some high ranking officials of CPC such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping were criticized by the Red Guard. It reflects that Chinese people had launched long-term struggles during the Cultural Revolution and the whole China was in turmoil. In social aspect, the Cultural Revolution caused social instability. According to Source E, Chinese people held in their hands Selected Works of Mao Zedong and wore arm bands with Chinese characters meaning ‘Red Guard’ during the Cultural Revolution. They launched a series of struggles and mass movements that caused social polarization and instability. According to my knowledge, in economic aspect, the Cultural Revolution caused heavy economic loss. During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese people stopped working and the Red Guard even destroyed the facilities. Thus, most of the factories stopped production. It was estimated that China had lost about 500 billion US dollars in total during 1966-1976 which was the total income of the PRC government in 30 years since its establishment. Therefore, the Cultural Revolution caused heavy economic loss. Moreover, in cultural aspect, the Cultural Revolution caused loss of Chinese traditional culture. During the Cultural Revolution, the Red Guard responded to Mao’s call and advocated destroying the “four olds” and establishing the “four news”. They strongly criticized the Chinese traditional culture by destroying the Confucius Temple as well as the memorial arch of “Model Teacher for All Ages”. It caused an incalculable loss of cultural relics. For the long-term impact of Cultural Revolution, in political aspect, it brought the “Three Beliefs Crises”. The Cultural Revolution was regarded as the “Ten Years of Catastrophe” by Chinese people. It aroused the “Three Beliefs Crises” that people started losing confidence in the government, trust in the CPC and faith in Marxism-Leninism. Thus, the CPC was forced to abandon the policy of “class struggle as the key link” and changed to pragmatic policy. In social aspect, the Cultural Revolution led to decline in morals. During the Cultural Revolution, Chinese people blindly followed Mao Zedong. There were even sayings such as “parents may love me, but not as much as Chairman Mao”. Also, the Red Guard criticized and struggled against their parents. For instance, famous CPC official Bo Xilai once struggled against his father, showing that the Cultural Revolution had led to decline in morals which was a long-term impact on China.