【2011】中國丨革命比改革



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a)從資料A指出漫畫家對中國憲政改革所持的看法。參考資料A,解釋你的答案。(3分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。頗多考生誤以為「看法」即「態度」,因而答案與題旨不符。

評分準則

L1 能指出看法,但未能作出任何有效的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能指出看法,亦未參考資料A作出有效的解釋。 [最多3分]

看法︰ 例︰ - 清廷將不能學到外國憲政的精髓 解釋︰ 例︰ - 漫畫中的漁夫捕捉的不是真正的月亮;他只是嘗試捕捉月亮的倒影而已。

參考答案

漫畫家認為中國憲政改革捕風捉影,未能取得成效。 參考資料A,漫畫家描繪象徵清延的漁夫試圖撒網捕捉「象徵各國之憲法」的月亮。然而,該月亮只不過是水中倒影,意味著漁夫再努力結果也不過徒勞,所以漫畫家認為憲政改革未能取得成效。

(b)孫中山作出資料B的演講,目的是什麼?參考資料B,解釋你的答案。(4分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能正確回應題旨。部分表現較差的考生僅能引錄資料,波有討論孫中山的目的。

評分準則

L1 能指出目的,但未能作出任何有效的解釋。 [最多2分] L2能指出目的,亦能參考資料B作出有效的解釋。 [最多4分]

目的︰ 例︰ - 動員海外華僑進行革命。 解釋︰ 例︰ - 據「望諸君速立志以實行革命」一句進行推論。


參考答案

孫中山演說目的在於邀請留美華僑參與並支持他所策劃的革命。 參考資料B,孫中山指出當時「滿洲政府之種種腐敗」是「無可救藥」的,抨擊清朝政府腐敗無能,未能夠改善國民生活狀況,讓聽日反感轉而支持他的革命,確實為他的目的。 同時,孫中山指出革命尚未成本的原因不在於「清政府之強」,不是政府打壓問題,而是「吾人之志未決」,即是說會眾保留的負面態度讓革命事業停滯不前,所以他肴望「諸君速立志以實行革命」,參與反滿抗爭之中,實為他的目的。

(c)就實現現代化而言,革命比改革政為有效。」你是否同意?參考資料A及B,並就你對1900-1912年間中國歷史發展所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現尚可。部分考生能夠引用資料及個人所知作答,而不少考生則未能討論改革和革命與現代化的關係。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效運用資料及相關史實,及/ 或對有關時間涵蓋不足。 [最多2分] L2 僅運用資料或相關史實,及/ 或僅能涵蓋有關時期的一部分。 [最多4分] L3 能運用資料及相關史實,及基本上能涵蓋整個有關時期。 [最多7分] 同意︰ 例︰ - 資料A反映出清廷在推行惠政改革時欠缺成效/ 誠意。 - 資料B顯示一些清廷官員亦認為清政府無可救藥。 - 武昌起事初具成果之際,很多清政府官員轉向革命黨。造顯示革命能有效令中國的政治發展邁進一步。(個人所知) 不同意︰ 例︰ - 兩項資料僅反映清廷某些問題,而未能真正討論中國現代化的各個側面。(資料) - 事實上,20世紀頭十的改革創建出一個新的中國。一些古老的制度,例如科舉制,一一被廢除,並以現代化的制度取替之。(個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言成立。 就我所知,革命有利於建設政治現代化,以辛亥革命(1911)為例,孫中山迫使清帝退位,建立中華民國,以法限權將權力賦予國民,試圖擺脫傳統的專制統治,顯示革命對政制發展的貢獻。 以及,革命有利於塑造公民社會,同以辛亥革命(1911)為例,民國成立後致力於掃除社會陋習,包括提倡男女平等、解放婦女纏足、禁止吸食鴉片等主張,提倡權力與義務等公民教育,反映革命有利於社會改造。 更甚,革命刺激中國經濟發展,基於民生主義提倡成立民族企業,結果1912年辛亥革命後全國超過1500家中、小企業成立,有利於中國由小農社會轉型至商業社會,有利於建設現代化。 雖然,改革亦有一定程度的貢獻。 就我所知,清末新政提出立憲,包括頒布《欽定憲法大綱》(1908),並於1911年成立內閣預備立憲,試圖將中國打造成君主立憲國家,建設現代政府體制,亦顯示改革有成效。 然而,參考資料A,漫畫家將清廷描繪成漁夫,並試圖撒網捕捉水中「象徵各國之憲法」的月亮,表示清朝政府試圖設立憲法,建設現代化。但他卻捉的不過是水中之影,即是說任他再努力也不會成功,顯示改革無利於實現現代化。 而且,孫中山在資料B指出當時「滿洲政府之種種腐敗」是「無可救藥」的,即是說清廷經已病入膏肓,就算她希望改革重振聲威亦於是無補,所以改革是無成效的,未能將中國蛻變成現代化國家。 此外,資料B的孫中山正發表演說要求海外華僑「立志以實行革命」,參與武裝革命推翻清朝管治,藉此「中國可救」且「身家性命可保」,推壓清朝正在實行的革命,廢除帝制統治,顯示革命比改革更為有效。 總括而言,題目所言成立。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify from Source A the cartoonist’s view of constitutional reforms in China. Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (3 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was poor. Quite a few candidates confused ‘view’ with ‘attitude’, and failed to present any valid answer. Marking Scheme

L1 Able to identify the view without any effective explanation. [max. 1] L2 Able to identify the view and make effective explanation with reference to Source A. [max. 3]


View: e.g.

- The Qing Court would not learn the essence of foreign constitutions.


Explanation: e.g.

- The fisherman in the cartoon did not catch the real moon; rather, he merely tried to catch its reflection.

Suggested Answer

The cartoonist’s view was that the constitutional reform in China could not get the gist of reformation hence it was ineffective. According to source A, the cartoonist portrays the fisherman of the Qing dynasty as trying to catch the moon that “symbolize the constitutions of various countries”. However, the moon is only a reflection in the water, meaning that no matter how hard the fisherman tried, he would result in failure. Hence the cartoonist deems that the constitutional reform was ineffective.

(b) What was Sun Yat-sen’s purpose in delivering the speech in Source B? Explain your answer with reference to Source B. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates could address the question properly. Some weak candidates merely cited the Source without discussing Sun’s purpose.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to identify the purpose without any effective explanation. [max. 2] L2 Able to identify the purpose with effective explanation with reference to Source B. [max. 4]


Purpose: e.g.

- To mobilize the overseas Chinese to carry out revolution. Explanation: e.g.

- Inference based on ‘I hope that all of you will immediately make up your minds to carry out revolution.’

Suggested Answer

The purpose of Sun Yat-sen’s speech was to persuade overseas Chinese in the US to support his revolution. According to source B, Sun stated that “corruptions of the Manchu government” was “hopeless”, he criticized the Qing government of being corrupt and incapable and failed to improve standard of living of Chinese people, through this he aimed to persuade audience to turn against the Qing government and support his revolution. Meanwhile, Sun pointed out that the reasons of failure of revolution was not the “strength of the Qing government”, but the “lack of determination”, meaning that the negative attitude of audiences dragged down revolutions, hence he wished that audiences would “immediately make up your minds to carry out revolution” and engage in revolution against the Qing government, which was his purpose of the speech.

(c) ‘Revolution was more effective than reform in achieving modernization.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B, and using your own knowledge about historical development in China in the period 1900-1912. (7 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. While some candidates were able to use both the Sources and their own knowledge to answer the question, quite a few failed to correlate reform and revolution to modernization.


Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Sources and own knowledge, and/or inadequate coverage of the period in question. [max. 2]

L2 Merely refer to the Sources or own knowledge, and/or cover only part of the period in the question. [max. 4]

L3 Refer to both Sources and own knowledge, and cover the whole period in question. [max. 7]

Suggested Answer

I agree to the statement to a large extent. According to my own knowledge, revolution was beneficial to bring about political modernization. Taking the 1911 Revolution as an example, Sun forced the Qing Emperor to resigned and established the Republic of China, the country was ruled by law and power resided with people. He also advocated to get rid of the traditional authoritarian rule, showing the contribution of revolution in political development. Moreover, revolution was favorable in shaping the civic society. Also taking the 1911 Revolution as an example, after the establish of the Republic of China, uncivilized practices in the society was eliminated, measures such as gender equality, liberation of women from foot-binding and ban of opium smoking were promoted. Civic education including rights and responsibility of citizens was also advocated, implying that revolution was beneficial to social reforms. Furthermore, revolution stimulated Chinese economic development. As nationalism advocated setting up national corporations, after the 1911 Revolution, more than 1500 small and middle enterprises were set up, this helped to transform China from an agricultural society to a commercial society, hence helped to promote modernization. However, reformation also contributed to modernization to a small extent. According to my own knowledge, in the late-Qing, the government suggested to set up a constitution, the Outline of Constitution by Imperial Order was announced in 1908 and the cabinet was ready for a constitution in 1911, hoping to turn China into a constitution monarchy and construct a modernized government system, showing that reformation was effective. However, according to source A, the Qing government is portrayed as a fisherman and he is attempting to catch the moon “symbolizing the constitutions of various countries” in the water using a net, implying that the Qing government made effort to set up a constitution and make progress in modernization. However, the fisherman only catches the moon in the water, meaning that no matter how much effort he put in, he would not succeed, reformation could hardly achieve modernization. Moreover, Sun pointed out in source B that “corruptions of the Manchu government” was “hopeless”, which means that the Qing government could not be saved and its effort in regaining legitimacy and support went in vain, reformation was ineffective and failed to turn China into a modernized country. Apart from that, according to source B, Sun demanded overseas Chinese to “make up your minds to carry out revolution”, to take part in armed revolution and to overthrow the Qing government, so that “China will be saved, and all that you have can be maintained”. He advocated to abolish reformations of the Qing government and overthrow the imperial regime, showing that revolution was more effective than reformation in achieving modernization. All in all, I agree with the statement to a large extent.

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