【2010】香港丨六七暴動



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 從資料A指出當時香港政府所面對的一個問題。參考資料A,解釋你的答案。(1+2分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能指出當時香港政府所面對的問題,並引用相關線索加以解釋。惟部分表現較差的考生僅陳述有關事件,未能闡明問題所在。

評分準則

問題(1分): 例:

- 共產主義的威脅 - 社會不穩 - 暴動 解釋: L1 能引用相關線索,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能引用相關線索,並作恰當解釋。 [最多2分] 例:

- 中共領袖毛澤東被歌頌(線索:「偉大的戰無不勝的毛澤東思想萬歲」) - 各個口號挑起反政府情緒(線索:使姅「抗暴」和「帝國卜義」等貶詞形容香港政府)

參考答案

香港政府當時面對反抗運動、社會不穩的問題。 參考資料A,照片中群情激憤,眾人走到街上拿著「反港英政府」的橫額遊行,要求結束殖民統治,回歸中國落實共產主義,顯示當時政府面對市民衝擊政權,並造成社會動盪的問題。 此外,資料A顯示當時街上掛上「愛國無罪!抗暴有理」的標語,並指出要向「英帝國主義」作出「強大反擊」,鼓勵市民上街反抗港英政權,造成社會不安,這正是政府所面對的問題。

(b) 參考資料B,描述1978-1990年間香港對中國內地貿易的轉變。(4分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能運用數據說明香港對中國內地出口額及入口額的變化。部分表現較差的考生未有涵蓋題目所問時期,或僅列出數據而未能闡明變化。

評分準則

L1 能說明轉變,但未能恰當引用資料。 [最多2分] L2 能說明轉變,能恰當引用資料。 [最多4分] 例:

- 香港自中國內地進口佔香港的總入口額,由16.3%(1978年)上升至36.9%(1990年)。 - 香港本地產品輸往中國內地佔香港的總出口額,由0.2%(1978年)上升至21.0%(1990年)

參考答案

香港跟內地貿易自自1978年起持續增加。 資料B顯示無論「由中國內進口」還是「香港本地產品輸往中國內地」的貿易數字於1978年都處於低小平,分別是16.3(進口)和0.2(出口)0.2個百分比,顯示當時香港鮮有跟中國內地商業來往,關係普通。 然而,情況至1990年出現轉變,香港輸往內地或由內地進口的數字都大幅增加,分別是36.9 (進口)和21.0(出口)個百分比,增長高達近2(進口)和100(出口)倍,反映至1990年時香港跟內地經常貿易來往,關係密緊,當然是轉變。

(c) 「1960年代至1990年代期間,香港與中國內地的關係由壞轉好。」你是否同意?參考資料A及B,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現欠佳。不少考生的立場是香港與中國內地的關係一直良好,但能針對題目關鍵詞「由壞轉好」作答者實屬鳳毛麟角。一些考生誤解題旨,僅以中英關係充數,因而未能取得任何分數。

評分準則

L1 答案含混,未能有效論及資料及相關史實,及/ 或對有關時期涵蓋不足。 [最多2分] L2 答案片面,僅運用資料或相關史實,及/ 或僅能涵蓋有關時期的一部分。 [最多4分] L3 答案全面,能運用資料及相關史實,及基上能涵蓋有關時期的全部。 [最多7分] 同意: 例:

- 資料A展示了1967年暴動的一幕。該暴動標誌著香港與中國內地關係緊張。 - 「文化大革命」結束後,開始了「改革開放」時期,中國的發展重點由階級鬥爭轉移到經濟建設(個人所知)。香港中國內地之間的貿易轉趨頻繁(資料B),這反映了兩地關係變得密切。 - 香港在該時期由英國殖民地變成中國的一個「特別行政區」,意味著香港與中國內地出現更多合作。(個人所知) 不同意: 例:

- 雖然經濟聯繫如資料B所示變得密切,兩地在有關時期出現互不信任。1980年代,香港對中國出現「信心危機」,繼而就彭定康的政治改革方案出現熾熱的爭論;中國為防香港變成一個反共基地,取消了立法局議局的「直通車」安排,並成立了臨時立法會。因此,資料A所形容的不穩仍然存大,儘管形式不同。(資料及個人所知)

參考答案

題目所言成立。 參考資料A,當時香港社會(1967年)崇尚毛澤東思想,如提出「偉大的戰無不勝的毛澤東思想萬步」,更指「愛國無罪」所以「抗暴有理」,試圖對港英政權「發動強大反擊」。於中國政府號召下,港人發動「反抗港英遊行」,自然中、英雙方甚少或斷絕往來,關係惡劣。 就我所知,1966年時中國政局動盪,國內正進行文化大革命(1966-1976),紅衛兵劇烈攻擊右派(資本主義及其象徵事物),處於中國內的大使館職員無一倖免。於此情況底下,奉行資本主義的香港自然於當時跟中國甚少或斷絕往來,彼此關係惡劣。 然而,隨著中共拘捕「四人幫」結束文革後,鄧小平上台並推行「改革開放(1978)」,邀請外資企業跟中國貿易,而香港則成為對外開放的窗口,更甚於當時不少工廠北移發展,貿易日漸增加,關係破冰,確實由壞轉好。 參考資料B,無論是香港出口或是內地輸入香港的貿易數字自1978年起持續上升,以出口額為例,由0.2%(1978)增長至21.0%(1990),增幅超過100倍,確實反映中、港關係愈趨緊密,當然是由壞轉好。 就我所知,至1990年代時中港關係達到頂點,舉例於國內不幸發生天災,港人定必舉辦籌款活動振災,1991年的華東水災正好一例證明中、港關係友好,有別於1960年代時互相對立,的確是由壞轉好。 最後,隨著1997年香港回歸中國結束殖民地統治,往後香港以「特別行政區」的身份成為中國一部分,特區特長需要定期到北京述職,中、港關係當然變好,不同於1960年代的狀況,確實由壞轉好。 總括而言,題目所言成立。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) Identify from Source A oneproblem faced by the Hong Kong government at the time. Explain your answer with reference to Source A. (1+2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to point out a problem faced by the Hong Kong government at the time, and cite relevant clues to explain their answers. However, some weak candidates merely gave a recount of the relevant event without pointing out what the problem was.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to cite relevant clue(s) without due explanation. [max. 1]

L2 Able to cite relevant clue(s) with due explanation. [max. 2]



Problem [1 mark] : e.g.

- communist threat - social instability - riot Explanation [2 mark] :

e.g.

- CPC leader Mao Zedong was highly praised (clue: ‘Long Live the Great and Invincible Mao =Zedong’s Thoughts)

- The slogans stirred up anti-government sentiments (clue: derogatory words such as ‘violence’ and ‘imperialism’ for the Hong Kong government).

Suggested Answer

The Hong Kong government faced the problem of resistance movements and social instability. According to source A, people in the photo are infuriate, they hold the banner of “British [Imperialism] in Hong Kong Shall be Defeated” and march on streets, demanding the end of colonial rule and the handover to China to establish communism. This shows that the government faced people’s political opposition which led to social instability. Apart from that, source A shows that the banner “Loving our motherland is not breaking the law! Resisting violence is justified!” was hanged on the street, it is also stated that “counter-attack on British Imperialism” should be launched. People were encouraged to protest against the British colonial government, leading to social instability, which was the problem faced by the Hong Kong government at the time.

(b) With reference to Source B, describe the changes in Hong Kong’s trade with mainland China in the period 1978-1990. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to make use of the statistics to identify changes in Hong Kong’s imports from and exports to mainland China. Some weak candidates did not cover the whole period in question or merely listed the statistics without summarizing the changes.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to identify the change without due reference to the Source. [max.2] L2 Able to identify the change with due reference to the Source. [max. 4]


e.g.

- Hong Kong’s imports from mainland China increased from 16.3% (1978) to 36.9% (1990) in Hong Kong’s total imports. - Hong Kong’s domestic exports to mainland China increased from 0.2% (1978) to 21.0% (1990) in Hong Kong’s total exports.

Suggested Answer

The trade between Hong Kong and mainland China experienced continuous increase in 1978. Source B shows that the figures of both “imports from mainland China” and “Hong Kong’s domestic exports to mainland China” remained low in 1978, which were 16.3% (import) and 0.2% (export) respectively, reflecting that exchange between Hong Kong and mainland China was limited at the time, their relationship was not particularly close. However, the situation changed from 1990, the figures of both “imports from mainland China” and “Hong Kong’s domestic exports to mainland China” substantially increased, which were 36.9% (import) and 21% (export), there were a 2 times and 100 times increase respectively, showing that trade between Hong Kong and mainland China during 1990s was frequent, their relationship became closer, marking a change.

(c) ‘The relationship between Hong Kong and mainland China in the period of the 1960s-1990s changed from bad to good.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer with reference to Sources A and B and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was poor. Many candidates had the view that the relationship between Hong Kong and mainland China had been good since the beginning, but few responded to the key phrase ‘from bad to good’. Some candidates mistook the question as one asking about Sino-British relations, and hence scored no marks.

Marking Scheme

L1 Vague answer, unable to effectively refer to the Sources and own knowledge, and/or inadequate coverage of the period in question. [max. 2] L2 A lopsided answer merely referring to the Sources or own knowledge, and/ or covering only part of the period in question. [max. 4] L3 A comprehensive answer referring to both Sources and own knowledge, and covering the whole period in question. [max. 7]


Agree: e.g.

- Source A represented a snapshot of the 1967 Riots, which marked a tense relationship between Hong Kong and the mainland of China. - After the end of the ‘Cultural Revolution’, the ‘Reform and Openness’ era cam and China emphasized economic constructions rather than class struggle (own knowledge). Trade between Hong Kong and mainland China boomed (Source B), which reflected closer tie between them. - Hong Kong transformed from a British colony to a ‘special administrative region’ of China in the period concerned, hence increasing cooperation between Hong Kong and mainland China. (own knowledge) Disagree: e.g.

- Despite the growing economic tie as reflected in Source B, mutual distrust existed throughout the period in question. There was vast ‘confidence crisis’ towards China in Hong Kong in the 1980s, followed by hot debate cantering on Patten’s political reform program; China, with a view to prevent Hong Kong from becoming a center of anti-communism, dropped the original ‘through-train’ arrangements for the LegCo members and set up the Provisional Legislative Council. Therefore, the instability as described in Source A still lingered on, though in a different form. (Source and own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

I agree with the statement to a large extent. According to source A, Mao ZeDong’s thoughts prevailed in the Hong Kong society in 1967, for example, the slogan of “Long Live the Great and Invincible Mao Zedong’s Thoughts” was raised, it was also suggested that “Loving our motherland is not breaking the law! Resisting violence is justified!”, attempting to “counter-attack on British Imperialism”. Under the leadership of the Chinese government, Hong Kong people initiated the “Rally against British colonial government”, the exchange between China and Britain greatly reduced and their relationship worsened. According to my own knowledge, China experienced political instability in 1966, Cultural Revolution took place from 1966 to 1976, the Red Guards fiercely attacked the rights (capitalism and anything related to it), ambassadors in China were also attacked. Under such situation, Hong Kong, which implemented capitalism, exchange with China was cut off, their relationship was poor. However, as the Gang of Four was arrest, the Cultural Revolution came to an end, Deng Xiao Ping rose to power and announced “Reform and Opening up” policy in 1978, he invited foreign corporations to trade with China, Hong Kong became a “window” for China’s opening-up. Not to mention that numerous factories were moved from Hong Kong to mainland China, trade increased and the relationship was normalized and improved. According to source B, the figures of both “imports from mainland China” and “Hong Kong’s domestic exports to mainland China” experienced growth since 1978, taking export as an example, it was increased from 0.2% in 1978 to 21% in 1990, there was a 100 times increase, reflecting that the relationship between China and Hong Kong became closer, their relationship turned from poor to good. Finally, as Hong Kong was handover to China in 1997 and colonial rule ended, Hong Kong turned to a “special administrative region” and became part of China, the Chief Executive had to report to the Beijing Government from time to time, the relationship between Hong Kong and China indeed improved and was different from that of the 1960s. All in all, I agree with the statement to a large extent.

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