【2010】日本丨20世紀初現代化程度



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a)(i) 就資料C所示,指出大正時期城市生活的兩項轉變。(4分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能指出大正時期城市生活的兩項轉變。部分表現較差的考生僅能指出城市生活的狀況而未能清楚闡明發生了什麼轉變。

評分準則

L1 能夠指出一個轉變,或者兩個相關的社會生活方面而沒有描述其轉變。 [最多2分] L2 能夠指出兩項轉變。 [最多4分]

例:

- 女性服裝:由和服變成短裙。 - 婦女地位:開始時在工會中的地位不被承認,後來積極參與工人運動。

參考答案

第一,大正時期服飾出現轉變。 參考資料C,作者指出當時日本人「生活大體已經西洋化」,例如女子校服「由和服轉為制服」,而男子工作「一般穿著西服」,日本潮流文化跟著西方「同步變化」,確為轉變。 第二,女性地位出現轉變。 資料C指出大正時期亢「工會中男性不承認女性的會員地位」,反映女性地位低落,不受社會重視。然而,大正時期「女性已積極參加各種工人運動」,參與社會建設,顯示女性地位出現轉變。

(a)(ii) 根據資料C,什麼原因導致該等轉變?(2分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能根據資料指出工業化導致城市生活的轉變。惟部分表現較差的考生未有參考資料,只以個人所知解釋,故未能得分。

評分準則

* 僅引述原文而未能用自己文字作答者,只得一分



例:

工業化帶來社會生活的轉變

參考答案

工業化導致該等轉變出現。 資料C指出「工業化影響著社會每一個層面」,尤其是「經濟形態的改變」,結果大正時期女性地位得到提升,而日本潮流文化亦跟隨西方步伐,確實因工業導使然。

(b) 20世紀初的日本有多現代化?參考資料C,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(6分)


考生表現

表現一般。大部分考生能解釋日本於20世紀上半葉現代化的各個方面,但能闡明當時現代化與傳統並存者不多。部分考生雖能指出當時現代化與傳統並存,惜未按關鍵詞「有多現代化」評估現代化的程度。少數考生以20世紀下半葉的史例充數,與題旨無關。

評分準則

L1 僅涵蓋現代化日本化,及/ 或僅使用資料或個人所知。 [最多3分] L2 涵蓋現代化日本化,能同時運用資料相關史實,並清楚闡明觀點。 [最多6分]

現代化: 例:

- 婦女積極參與工會活動(資料) - 城市居民穿著西裝/制服(資料) - 工業化(資料) - 現代憲政及政黨政治(個人所知) - 陸、海軍按西方模式發展(個人所知) 日本化: 例:

- 很多男女仍然在家穿著和服(資料) - 神道教是國教(個人所知) - 天皇在「明治憲法」中仍然神聖不可侵犯(個人所知) - 農村現代化的水準很低(個人所知)

參考答案

20世紀初日本小程度現代化。 雖然,資料C指20世紀初日本社會具多元文化,包括女子校服「由和服轉為制服」,而男子「一般穿著西服」,外來文化於社會出現。而同時日本能夠保存自身傳統,如「男人和女人在家裡仍然穿和服」,顯示文化多元,實為現代化。 以及,資料C指女性地在得到提升,於大正時期前「工會中男性不承認女性的會員地位」,但隨著社會開放、女權運動多次爭取後,至1920年代時「女性已積極參加各種工人運動」,男女地位日漸平均,故然是現代化。 再者,資料C分析「工業化」影響著日本社會「每一個層面」,這都意味著20世紀初日本社會已經完成工業化,日人善科技、機械等,不但有利社會建設,而且能夠改善國民生活,當然是現代化。 然而,就我所知,女性的社會地位於20世紀初日本依然低落,例如她們沒有投票、選舉、被選舉的權力,政壇依然由男性把持,反映當時情況與兩性平權仍有一段距離,斷不能論證是現代化。 此外,20世紀初日本出現多場經濟危機,包括關東大地震(1923)、銀行危機(1927)和經濟大衰退(1929),經濟發展停滯不前,更甚於1920年代末失業人就達到300萬,非現代化國家表現。 最後,20世紀初日本外交地位低,一方面美國頒布《排外法案》(1924),禁止日人移民入境;另一方面,華盛頓會議(1921-1922)、倫敦海軍會議(1930)限制日本海軍擴展,亦強迫日本交還中國山東利益,受盡列強歧視難以論述日本是現代化。 總括而言,無可否認日本於20世紀初具備現代化特徵,包括女性地位抬頭、工業化擴展,但這不過是形式上轉變。考慮到當時日本實際情況,社經發展依然落後,對外不受列強所尊重,距離現代化仍有一段距離。因此,題目所言小程度成立。

參考答案(英文版)

(a)(i) Identify two changes in urban life in the Taisho period as shown in Source C. (4 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to identify two changes in urban life in the Taisho period. Some weak candidates merely pointed out conditions of the urban life without clearly specifying what changes had taken place.

Marking Scheme

L1 Able to identify one change, or two relevant aspects of social life without describing their changes. [max. 2] L2 Able to identify two changes. [max. 4]


e.g.

- Lady’s clothing: from kimono to skirts - Status of women: initially lack of recognition in the labour unions, later being actively involved in labor movements

Suggested Answer

First, the clothing changed in the Taisho period. According to source C, the author stated that life of Japanese people “had generally become Westernised”, for instance, girls’ uniform was changed from “kimono to uniforms”, while men “in general wore Western clothing”. Japanese culture “changed at the same pace as new trends in the West”. Second, the status of women experienced changes. Source C shows that before the Taisho period, “men in labour unions did not accept their female counterparts as union members”, indicating that the status of women was low and women was not valued. However, in the Taisho period, “women had become actively involved in various kinds of labour movements”, they took part in the construction of society, showing that the status of women experienced changes.

(a)(ii) According to Source C, what was the reason for such changes? (2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to refer to the source and point out that industrialization had caused the changes in urban life. However, some weak candidates did not refer to the source and used their own knowledge instead, hence scoring no marks.

Marking Scheme

* One mark will be awarded to those who only quote the Source without writing in their own words


e.g.

- Industrialisation caused changes in social life.

Suggested Answer

Industrialization brought about the changes. Source C states that “industrialisation was affecting all levels of society”, especially “changes in economic mode”, as a result the status of women increased in the Taisho period, Japanese culture also followed the pace of the west, all of which were caused by industrialization.

(b) How modernised was Japan in the early 20th century? Explain your answer with reference to Source C and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. Most candidates were able to explain aspects of modernity of Japan in the early 20thcentury, but few could point out the co-existence of modernity and traditions at the time. Some who could point out the co-existence of modernity and traditions sometimes did not assess the extent of modernization as implied in the key phrase ‘how modernized’. A number of candidates cited examples from the second half of the 20thcentury, which were irrelevant to the question.

Marking Scheme

L1 Cover only modernisation or Japanimation, and/or using Source or own knowledge only. [max. 3] L2 Cover both modernisation or Japanimation, using both Source and own knowledge, with a clear viewpoint. [max. 6]


Modernisation: e.g.

- Women actively participated in union activities (Source) - Urban dwellers wore Western suits/ uniforms (Source) - Industrialisation (Source) - Modern constitutionalism and party politics (own knowledge) - Army and naval development on the Western model (own knowledge) Japanimation: e.g.

- Many men and women still wore kimonoat home (Source) - Shintoism as the state religion (own knowledge) - Tenno still scared and inviolable in the Meiji Constitution (own knowledge) - Low level of modernisation in agriculture (own knowledge)

Suggested Answer

Japan was modernized to a small extent in early 20thcentury. Source C states that the Japanese society in the early 20thcentury was diverse, such that female uniform was changed from “kimono to uniforms” and men “in general wore Western clothing”, all of these show cultural diversity, which was regarded as modernization. Moreover, source C states that the status of women increase, before the Taisho period, “men in labour unions did not accept their female counterparts as union members”, however, as the society became more liberal and feminist movements flourished, “women had become actively involved in various kinds of labour movements” in the 1920s. The status of men and women were becoming more equal, which was also regarded as modernization. Furthermore, source C concludes that “industrialization” affects “all levels of society”, meaning that the Japanese society in the early 20thcentury was industrialized, technology and mechanics were utilized by Japanese people, industrialization was not only beneficial to social construction, but also enhanced people’s standard of living, which was regarded as modernization. However, according to my own knowledge, women still had a low status in Japanese society in the early 20thcentury. For instance, they did not have the right to vote and the right to engage in elections, politics were still dominated by men, reflecting that the situation was still far from achieving gender equality, hence it could not be regarded as a modernized society. Apart from that, economic crisis emerged in the early 20thcentury, including the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, the Bank Crisis in 1927 and the Great Depression in 1929, economic development grounded to a halt, 3 million people were unemployed in late 1920s, therefore Japan was still far from modernization at the time. Finally, the diplomatic status of Japanese remained low in the early 20thcentury. On one hand, the US announced the Immigration Act of 1924 to ban Japanese immigrants. On the other hand, the Washington Conference (1921-1922), London Naval Conference (1930) limited Japan’s naval expansion. Japan was also forced to give up its interest of Shan Dong in China, Japan was discriminated against, therefore it could hardly be concluded that it was a modernized country. To conclude, it was undeniable that in the early 20thcentury, Japan had certain characteristics of modernization, including the rise of status of women and the expansion of industries, however these were only changes in the form. Considering the actual situation in Japan, social development was still backward, it also failed to win respect from other powers externally, it was still a long way to modernization. Hence, Japan was modernized only to a small extent in early 20thcentury.

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