L1 能夠指出一個轉變，或者兩個相關的社會生活方面而沒有描述其轉變。 [最多2分]
L2 能夠指出兩項轉變。 [最多4分]
L1 僅涵蓋現代化或日本化，及/ 或僅使用資料或個人所知。 [最多3分] L2 涵蓋現代化及日本化，能同時運用資料及相關史實，並清楚闡明觀點。 [最多6分]
- 婦女積極參與工會活動（資料） - 城市居民穿著西裝／制服（資料） - 工業化（資料） - 現代憲政及政黨政治（個人所知） - 陸、海軍按西方模式發展（個人所知） 日本化： 例：
(a)(i) Identify two changes in urban life in the Taisho period as shown in Source C. (4 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to identify two changes in urban life in the Taisho period. Some weak candidates merely pointed out conditions of the urban life without clearly specifying what changes had taken place.
L1 Able to identify one change, or two relevant aspects of social life without describing their changes. [max. 2]
L2 Able to identify two changes. [max. 4]
- Lady’s clothing: from kimono to skirts
- Status of women: initially lack of recognition in the labour unions, later being actively involved in labor movements
First, the clothing changed in the Taisho period.
According to source C, the author stated that life of Japanese people “had generally become Westernised”, for instance, girls’ uniform was changed from “kimono to uniforms”, while men “in general wore Western clothing”. Japanese culture “changed at the same pace as new trends in the West”.
Second, the status of women experienced changes.
Source C shows that before the Taisho period, “men in labour unions did not accept their female counterparts as union members”, indicating that the status of women was low and women was not valued. However, in the Taisho period, “women had become actively involved in various kinds of labour movements”, they took part in the construction of society, showing that the status of women experienced changes.
(a)(ii) According to Source C, what was the reason for such changes? (2 marks)
Performance was good. Most candidates were able to refer to the source and point out that industrialization had caused the changes in urban life. However, some weak candidates did not refer to the source and used their own knowledge instead, hence scoring no marks.
* One mark will be awarded to those who only quote the Source without writing in their own words
- Industrialisation caused changes in social life.
Industrialization brought about the changes.
Source C states that “industrialisation was affecting all levels of society”, especially “changes in economic mode”, as a result the status of women increased in the Taisho period, Japanese culture also followed the pace of the west, all of which were caused by industrialization.
(b) How modernised was Japan in the early 20th century? Explain your answer with reference to Source C and using your own knowledge. (6 marks)
Performance was fair. Most candidates were able to explain aspects of modernity of Japan in the early 20thcentury, but few could point out the co-existence of modernity and traditions at the time. Some who could point out the co-existence of modernity and traditions sometimes did not assess the extent of modernization as implied in the key phrase ‘how modernized’. A number of candidates cited examples from the second half of the 20thcentury, which were irrelevant to the question.
L1 Cover only modernisation or Japanimation, and/or using Source or own knowledge only. [max. 3]
L2 Cover both modernisation or Japanimation, using both Source and own knowledge, with a clear viewpoint. [max. 6]
- Women actively participated in union activities (Source) - Urban dwellers wore Western suits/ uniforms (Source) - Industrialisation (Source) - Modern constitutionalism and party politics (own knowledge) - Army and naval development on the Western model (own knowledge) Japanimation: e.g.
- Many men and women still wore kimonoat home (Source)
- Shintoism as the state religion (own knowledge)
- Tenno still scared and inviolable in the Meiji Constitution (own knowledge)
- Low level of modernisation in agriculture (own knowledge)
Japan was modernized to a small extent in early 20thcentury. Source C states that the Japanese society in the early 20thcentury was diverse, such that female uniform was changed from “kimono to uniforms” and men “in general wore Western clothing”, all of these show cultural diversity, which was regarded as modernization. Moreover, source C states that the status of women increase, before the Taisho period, “men in labour unions did not accept their female counterparts as union members”, however, as the society became more liberal and feminist movements flourished, “women had become actively involved in various kinds of labour movements” in the 1920s. The status of men and women were becoming more equal, which was also regarded as modernization. Furthermore, source C concludes that “industrialization” affects “all levels of society”, meaning that the Japanese society in the early 20thcentury was industrialized, technology and mechanics were utilized by Japanese people, industrialization was not only beneficial to social construction, but also enhanced people’s standard of living, which was regarded as modernization. However, according to my own knowledge, women still had a low status in Japanese society in the early 20thcentury. For instance, they did not have the right to vote and the right to engage in elections, politics were still dominated by men, reflecting that the situation was still far from achieving gender equality, hence it could not be regarded as a modernized society. Apart from that, economic crisis emerged in the early 20thcentury, including the Great Kanto Earthquake in 1923, the Bank Crisis in 1927 and the Great Depression in 1929, economic development grounded to a halt, 3 million people were unemployed in late 1920s, therefore Japan was still far from modernization at the time. Finally, the diplomatic status of Japanese remained low in the early 20thcentury. On one hand, the US announced the Immigration Act of 1924 to ban Japanese immigrants. On the other hand, the Washington Conference (1921-1922), London Naval Conference (1930) limited Japan’s naval expansion. Japan was also forced to give up its interest of Shan Dong in China, Japan was discriminated against, therefore it could hardly be concluded that it was a modernized country. To conclude, it was undeniable that in the early 20thcentury, Japan had certain characteristics of modernization, including the rise of status of women and the expansion of industries, however these were only changes in the form. Considering the actual situation in Japan, social development was still backward, it also failed to win respect from other powers externally, it was still a long way to modernization. Hence, Japan was modernized only to a small extent in early 20thcentury.