【2010】二戰丨希特拉崛興



題目拆解

參考答案(中文版)

(a) 資料D中的歷史人物叫什麼名字?從資料D中引用一項線索,支持你的答案。(1+1分)


考生表現

表現良好。大部分考生能指出資料所示漫畫人物的名字,並引用線索說明。部分英文卷考生不明白historical figure一詞的意思,以為題目問及某一件歷史事件,因而未能得分。

評分準則

歷史人物(1分)︰ - 希特拉 線索(1分)︰ 例子︰ - 他是「納粹黨」的領導。 - 他樣貌(鬍鬚)酷似希特拉。

參考答案

該歷史人物叫希特拉。 資料D的人物頭戴「納粹黨」的帽子,臉上當眼處有一鬍鬚,正在「凡爾賽條約」中緩緩爬出來。這可以推斷他是希特拉,原因在於希特拉是納粹黨的領袖,打著推翻「凡爾賽條約」的口號吸引支持,鬍鬚更是他的樣貌特徵,故該歷史人物是希特拉。

(b) 就凡爾賽條約對德國的影響而言,你認為漫畫家有何看法?參考資料D,解釋你的答案。(1+2分)


考生表現

表現良好。不少考生能指出漫畫家的看法。部分考生誤以為「看法」即「態度」,因而影響得分。

評分準則

看法(1分)︰ 例︰ - 漫畫家認為凡爾賽條約導致希特拉的崛起。 解釋︰ L1 能引用相關線索,但沒有恰當的解釋。 [最多1分] L2 能引用相關線索,並作恰當解釋。 [最多2分]

線索︰ 例︰ - 漫畫標頭是「源頭」 -  有一個標寫著「納粹黨」的人從凡爾賽條約中爬行出來。

參考答案

漫畫家認為凡爾賽條約導致希特拉崛起。 一方面,漫畫家將希特拉描繪成從「凡爾賽條約」中緩緩爬出來,表示資料認為凡爾賽條約促成希特拉的出現,導致他掌握德國。 另一方面,漫畫的標題為「源頭」,內容正表達凡爾賽條約與希特拉之關係,源頭一字帶有事物根源的意思,可以推斷凡爾賽條約是導致希特拉崛興。

(c) 第二次世界大戰在什麼程度上是由凡爾賽條約所導致?參考資料D,並就你所知,解釋你的答案。(7分)


考生表現

表現一般。表現出色的考生能運用資料及個人所知,解釋凡爾賽條約及其他因素如何導致第二次世界大戰,惟此類考生不多。表現較差的考生欠缺個人立場,或只討債凡爾賽條約而忽略其他因素。

評分準則

L1 僅使用資料個人所知,及/或僅討論凡爾賽條約或其他導致第二次世界大戰的因素。 [最多4分] L2 同時運用資料相關史實,能討論凡爾賽條約其他導致第二次世界大戰的因素,並清潔闡明觀點。 [最多7分] 凡爾賽條約︰ 例︰ - 凡爾賽條約導致納粹黨的崛起(資料) - 修約成為納粹黨在內政和外交擴張的借口(個人所知) 其他因素︰ 例︰ - 法西斯意大利的擴張政策 - 綏靖政策的失敗 - 國際聯盟的局限

參考答案

題目所言大程度上成立。 漫畫家在資料D中將希特拉描述成從凡爾賽條約中緩緩爬行出來,表示漫畫家認為凡爾賽條約導致希特拉上台,繼而策劃一系列侵略行動,導致二戰爆發。 同時,漫畫以「源頭」作為標頭,內容關於希特拉與凡爾賽條約之關係,暗示凡爾賽條約是希特拉掌握德國的根源,希特拉上台後積極對外擴張,引致二戰爆發。 就我所知,凡爾賽條約要求德國賠償66億英鎊和承擔所有戰爭罪責,此等安排讓德國人極為不滿,轉而支持希特拉和他的納粹黨,透過對外侵略的手段來爭取國家光榮,招致二戰爆發。 除凡爾賽條約外,還有其他因素導致二戰爆發,但其重要性有限。 就我所知,綏靖政策導致二戰爆發。英、法兩國推行綏靖政策,以犧牲小國利益來換取和平,此行動卻加劇極權主義侵略野心,如德國在1939年9月1日突襲波蘭為二戰揭開序幕。 然而,凡爾賽條約比綏靖政策更為重要。因果關係而言,正因為凡爾賽條約對德國不公,促成希特拉上台並對外侵略,才招引英、法以綏靖政策回應,試圖維持和平。這都反映綏靖政策的出現實為凡爾賽條約的影響。 其次,經濟大衰退導致二戰爆發。經濟大衰退發生於1929年,對歐洲各國帶來嚴重影響,如德國失業人數近600萬。經濟困窘滋長極端思想,民眾希望以戰爭手段來推動經濟發展,長遠亦促成二戰出現。 然而,凡爾賽條約比經濟大衰退更為重要。就兩個因素的重要性而言,因為凡爾賽條約規定德國巨額賠償,於經濟一蹶不振的情況下面對經濟大衰退時就更雪上加霜,反映經濟大衰退的嚴重經濟影響實因凡爾賽條約而來。 可見,題目所言大程度上成立。


參考答案(英文版)

(a) Name the historical figure shown in Source D. Cite one clue from Source D to support your answer. (1+1 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Most candidates were able to name the historical figure in the cartoon, and support their answers by citing one clue from the source. Some candidates who attempted the English version of this paper did not understand the meaning of ‘historical figure’, and mistook the question as one that required the naming of a certain historical event, hence scoring no marks.

Marking Scheme

Figure [1 mark] : - Hitler

Clues [1 mark] :

e.g.

- Leader of the ‘Nazi Party’ - He looked like Hitler (the moustache).

Suggested Answer

The historical figure is Hitler. According to source D, the figure is wearing the “Nazi Party” hat, he also has a moustache on his face and crawling from the “Treaty of Versailles”. From these it can be deduced that he is Hitler, as Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party who advocated to overrule the Treaty of Versailles to gain support, the moustache was also a symbol of his appearance, hence the figure is Hitler.

(b) What, in your opinion, was the cartoonist’s view of the impact of the Versailles Treaty on Germany? Explain your answer with reference to Source D. (1+2 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was good. Many candidates were able to point out the cartoonist’s view. Some candidates mistook ‘view’ as ‘attitude’, hence losing marks.

Marking Scheme

Explanation:

L1 Able to cite relevant clue(s) without due explanation. [max. 1]

L2 Able to cite relevant clue(s) with explanation [max. 2]


View [1 mark] : e.g.

- The cartoonist thought that the Versailles Treaty led to the rise of the Nazi Party. Clues: e.g.

- The caption of the cartoon is ‘The Source’. - A figure with the words ‘Nazi Party’ crawled out of the Versailles Treaty.

Suggested Answer

The cartoonist believes that the Treaty of Versailles led to Hitler’s rise to power. On one hand, the cartoonist portrayed Hitler as crawling out from the “Treaty of Versailles”, indicating that the Treaty of Versailles led to Hitler’s emergence and rose to power. On the other hand, the caption of the cartoon is “the Source” which indicates the relation between the Treaty of Versailles and Hitler, “the Source” means the root and cause, which can therefore be deduced that the Treaty of Versailles led to Hitler’s rise to power.

(c) To what extent was the Second World War caused by the Versailles Treaty? Explain your answer with reference to Source D and using your own knowledge. (7 marks)


Candidates’ Performance

Performance was fair. The competent candidates were able to use the source and their own knowledge to explain how the Versailles Treaty and other factors had caused the Second World War, but such answers were in the minority. The weak candidates did not specify their standpoints, or merely discussed the Versailles Treaty and ignored other factors.

Marking Scheme

L1 Merely refer to the Source or citing relevant historical facts, and/ or merely discuss the Versailles Treaty or other factors that led to the Second World War. [max. 4] L2 Refer to both the Source and cite relevant historical facts; discuss both the Versailles Treaty and other factors that led to the Second World War; clearly state the viewpoint. [max. 7]


Versailles Treaty: e.g.

- The Versailles Treaty led to the rise of the Nazi Party (Source). - Treaty revision issue became an excuse of the Nazi Party to seek expansion, both internal and external. (own knowledge) Other factors: e.g.

- Fascist Italy’s expansionist policy. - The failure of the appeasement policy. - The limitations of the League of Nations.

Suggested Answer

The Second World War was caused by the Treaty of Versailles to a large extent. The cartoonist portrays in source D that Hitler is crawling out from the Treaty of Versailles, meaning that the cartoonist believes that the Treaty of Versailles led to Hitler’s rise to power, Hitler then planned a series of invasion which led to WWII. Meanwhile, the cartoon is captioned “the Source”, its content is about the relation between Hitler and the Treaty of Versailles, which signifies that the Treaty of Versailles was the cause of Hitler’s rise to power. Hitler actively initiated foreign expansion and invasion, eventually causing WWII. According to my own knowledge, the Treaty of Versailles demanded 6.6 billion pounds of compensation from Germany and required Germany to bear all responsibility of WWI, such arrangement caused dissatisfaction among German people, hence they turned to support Hitler and the Nazi Party, who advocated invasions to regain national glory, WWII finally broke out. Apart from the Treaty of Versailles, other factors also led to WWII but they are with limited importance. According to my own knowledge, the Appeasement Policy led to the outbreak of WWII. Britain and France put the Appeasement Policy into practice, the interest of small nations were sacrificed in exchange for peace, however, this intensified the aggression of totalitarian states. For instance, Germany attacked Poland on 1stSeptember 1939, WWII then began. However, the Treaty of Versailles was more important than the Appeasement Policy in starting WWII. In terms of causal relationship, it was the unfair treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles that led to Hitler’s rise to power and initiated foreign invasions. In face of this, Britain and France could only response passively by the Appeasement Policy to maintain peace. These reflects that the Appeasement Policy was the consequence of the Treaty of Versailles. Moreover, the Great Depression also led to WWII. The Great Depression broke out in 1929 and brought destructive effects to European countries, for instance, nearly 6 million people became unemployed in Germany. Economic hardship was favorable for the spread of extreme ideologies, people hoped to initiate wars for economic development, this in long term led to the outbreak of WWII. Nevertheless, the Treaty of Versailles was more important than the Great Depression. Comparing the importance of the two, because the Treaty of Versailles demanded Germany to repay huge sum of compensation, the existing economic hardship was worsened by the Great Depression, meaning that the destructive impact of the Great Depression was brought by the Treaty of Versailles. Therefore, WWII was caused by the Treaty of Versailles to a large extent.

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